International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 5 Issue 1 2014- July 2014    Pages: 144-163  <<Previous    Next>>

Ground water quality evaluation with special reference to Fluoride and Nitrate contamination in Bassi Tehsil of district Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Author Information:

Umesh Saxena1, Swati Saxena2

1- Principal & Professor, Chanakya Technical Campus, Jaipur (Raj.)-302022 (India)

2- Research Scholar, Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur (Raj.) India


Water is an essential natural resource for sustaining life and environment but over the last few decades the water quality is deteriorating due to it’s over exploitation. Water quality is essential parameter to be studied when the overall focus is sustainable development keeping mankind at focal point. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in rural as well as in urban areas and over 94% of the drinking water demand is met by groundwater. The study was carried out to assess the ground water quality and its suitability for drinking purpose with special reference to fluoride and nitrate contamination in most rural habitations of Bassi tehsil of district Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. For this purpose, 50 water samples collected from hand pumps, open wells and bore wells of villages of study area were analysed for different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, chloride, nitrate, fluoride and total dissolved solids.
pH value in the study area found from 6.3 to 8.7. EC ranges from 1100-16000 µmhos/cm and total alkalinity between 70 to 990 mg/L. Total hardness ranged from 30 to 980 mg/L and calcium hardness from 10 to 480 mg/L. Magnesium hardness varied from 20 to 500 mg/L and chloride from 20 to 3620 mg/L. Values of nitrate concentration varied from 9 to 224 mg/L and fluoride from 0.28 to 11.5 mg/L while value of TDS ranges from 770 to 11200 mg/L. The study reveals that almost all parameters were exceeding the permissible limits. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride and nitrate in drinking water, determined by WHO, BIS and ICMR standards, 62% and 42% of groundwater sources are unfit for drinking purposes respectively. Due to the higher fluoride and nitrate levels in drinking water several cases of dental, skeletal fluorosis and methaemoglobinaemia have appeared at alarming rate in this region.  After evaluating the data of this study it is concluded that drinking water of Bassi tehsil is not potable and there is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from adverse health effects.

Keywords: Groundwater quality, Fluoride, Nitrate, Bassi Tehsil and Rajasthan.


© 2014 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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