International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 5 Issue 2 2014- September 2014    Pages: 447- 463 <<Previous    Next>>

A review on airborne particulate matter and its sources, chemical composition and impact on human respiratory system

Author Information:

Jitendra K. Nagar.1, 2, A. B. Akolkar1 and Raj Kumar2
1- Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Parivesh Bhawan, Delhi-32, India
2- Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi. India


 Airborne particulate matter (PM) is responsible for serious immediate and long-term impacts on human health because airborne particulates easily reach the deepest recesses of the lungs that damage the respiratory system of human beings. Indoor PM concentrations which are depending upon both (indoor and outdoor) sources are also responsible for human respiratory allergy because urban people typically spend more than 87% of their time indoor. There are several sources of particulate matter, such as combustion of fossil fuels, automobile exhaust, industrial processes, power plants, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking and natural sources such as sea salt, volcanic eruption, windblown dust, pollen grains and particles of soil. PM undergoes enrichment with certain trace and major elements, and form minerals. Particulate matter led to serious health hazards in human beings and causing asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rhinitis, irritation of lungs, pneumonia, decreased resistance to respiratory infection, chronic cough, phlegm production, allergy, headache, fatigue, lung cancer and premature death. High particle concentration is associated with substantial short-term increases in morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: SPM, standards, elements, respiratory diseases, mortality.


© 2014 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The electronic version of the article can be downloaded below

Download full text pdf

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend