International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 6 Issue 1 2015- July 2015  Pages: 56- 67  <<Previous    Next>>

Occurrence, analysis, toxicity and treatment processes of pharmaceutically active compounds and hormones in water and wastewater: A review

Author Information:

Olushola Sunday Ayanda - Department of Industrial Chemistry, Federal University Oye Ekiti, P.M.B 373, Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


Pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) and hormones have been discovered in various wastewater, surface and ground waters, and are widely dispersed in the environment. Excretion, unrestrained drug disposal, discard of medicines and veterinary applications constitute the main pathways by which these organic pollutants reach the environment. In this study, recent research on the occurrence, analysis, toxicity and treatment processes of PACs and hormones in water and wastewater will be presented. PACs and hormones as low as in µg L-1 to ng L−1 levels are endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) that can cause potential risk to aquatic/terrestrial animals and humans. Therefore, to prevent the deleterious effects of PACs and hormones, the development of new and/or combined technologies for selective removal and determination of PACs and hormones in environmental matrices is of great importance.

Keywords: Pharmaceutically active compounds, hormones, endocrine disrupting compounds, water, wastewater


© 2015 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The electronic version of the article can be downloaded below

Download full text pdf

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend