Characterization of groundwater quality of Tonk District, Rajasthan, India using factor analysis
Pradeep Kumar Sharma1, Ritu Vijay2, MP Punia3
1- Deptt of Computer Science, Banasthali University; 2- Deptt of Electronics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India
3- Deptt of Remote Sensing, Birla Institute of Technology, Jaipur, India
This study aims to employ factor analysis using groundwater samples collected from wells in Tonk district, India. The main aim is to identify useful pollution indicators. Correlations among 12 hydro-chemical parameters are determined. Three factors are estimated on the basis of Kaiser Criterion of the Eigen values >= 1 and from Scree plot. Factor 1 (Salinization factor) includes the concentration of EC, TDS, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- and NO3-. This factor is characterized by the strong positive loadings with respect to EC, TDS, Na+ and Cl-, which controls the overall mineralization and moderate loadings of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3-, which is due to the weathering of minerals feldspars, amphiboles and pyroxenes. Factor 2 (Alkalinity factor) includes the concentration of pH, CO3-, HCO3- and F-. pH of the water samples is greater than 7. The alkalinity of water may be due to carbonate and bicarbonates. Factor 3 is agriculture and lithology factor includes potassium (K+) as a constituent. Maps are drawn using ARCGIS to show the geographical distribution of these factors. Hence, this study illustrates the benefit of factor analysis for interpreting complex data sets in the analysis of spatial variations in groundwater quality, and to plan for better management
Keywords: Factor analysis, groundwater quality, kaiser criterion, salinization factor, alkalinity factor
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