International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 3 Issue 5 2013- March 2013    Pages: 1614-1624<<Previous    Next>>

Municipal solid waste management practices and fecal coliform water contamination in the cities of the developing countries: The case of Juba, South Sudan

Author Information:

Martin Kajokare Loboka 1, Qi Shihua 1, John Leju Celestino 2, Safaa Omer Hassan3,
Samuel Wani4.

1.School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, 430074, P R China

2- School of Energy and Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China
3- College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, Department of Forestry, University of Bahry, Khartoum, Sudan
4- Central Laboratory for Water Quality, Central Equatoria State, Juba, South Sudan


Municipal solid waste management in most cities of the developing countries is generally very poor. The inadequate and un-scientific management practices have resulted into major hazards to human health and the environment; contamination of both surface and ground water which is in turn a serious human health risk. This study aims at investigating the effect of indiscriminate municipal solid waste dumping on the water resources with specific focus on fecal coliform contamination in Juba city. Also some few physical parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS, and EC were tested. The results revealed that the river Nile and the streams within Juba are highly contaminated; with an average range of 15.25 – 102.6 CFU/100ml for the river Nile. The pH and temperature were within the normal range. TDS showed very high values with range of 47 – 123 mg/100ml which is far beyond the EPA and WHO recommended 500 ml/L.  The EC was not so high; ranges between 59µs - 201µs/cm which is slightly above the recommended 160 µs/cm. For the streams, the CFU/100ml was found to be abnormally high ranging from 1.25 – 11,540.5 CFU/100ml. TDS and EC were also high ranging from 41 – 868 mg/100ml and 15 – 1761 µs/cm respectively. The pH and the temperature showed normality. The CFU/100ml readings of the boreholes and the well were somehow good with a range of 0 – 26 CFU/100ml. Out of the eleven sampled, six were clean with 0 CFU/100ml the EPA and WHO recommended value but the other five and the well were contaminated. The TDS and EC were extremely high ranging between 481 – 823 mg/100ml and 1032 – 1775 µs/cm. pH and temperature were within normal range. The study concluded that the poor municipal solid waste management in Juba is posing high risk to the human health and the environment.

Key words: Municipal solid waste, fecal coliform, water contamination, CFU/100ml.


© 2013 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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