International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 3 Issue 6 2013- June 2013    Pages: 1857-1867  <<Previous    Next>>

A comparative study of the ground and surface water quality with reference to heavy metal concentrations in the Imphal valley, Manipur, India

Author Information:

Sanjoy Meitei L1, Rakesh Kh2
1- Department of Environmental Science, D.M.College of Science, Imphal, Manipur, India
2- Department of Zoology, CMJ University Shillong, Meghalya, India


The main water sources for domestic purposes in Manipur are the untreated ponds. It is also inadequate, so people do rely on ground water too. Therefore present paper analyzes and discusses in details the parameters such as pH, turbidity, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, Cl-, F-, Ca, Mg, Na, K, NO3--, PO4--, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in water samples collected from the surface and the ground water from Imphal valley, Manipur, and findings were compared with the International Standards as well as Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) for drinking water quality. The parameters like turbidity, alkalinity, Na, Hg and Cd contents in few sites of surface water are alarming and TDS, alkalinity, hardness, Na, K, Fe and Cd in the ground water showed very wide variations and crossed the maximum permissible limit of WHO and ICMR.

Keywords: Ponds, Ground water, Heavy metal, Bioaccumulation, Imphal valley.


© 2013 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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