International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 3 Issue 6 2013- June 2013    Pages: 1938-1956  <<Previous    Next>>

Major ion chemistry and water quality assessment of waterbodies at Golapbag area under Barddhaman Municipality of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India

Author Information:

Palas Samanta, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee, Sandipan Pal, Tarakeshwar Senapati, Subinoy Mondal, Apurba Ratan Ghosh

Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India.


Hydrochemical features of surface water of Golapbag at Burdwan were assessed in regard to ascertain its chemistry, quality and suitability for the purpose of drinking, livestock and irrigation. Study revealed that water samples were alkaline (7.56 ≤ pH ≤ 8.39), soft to moderately hard (30.00 ≤ total hardness ≤ 93.33 mg/l) and fresh (46.87 ≤ total dissolved solid ≤ 220.67 mg/l) in nature. The abundance of major ions in the water samples was in the order of Ca2+ (28.72 mg/l) > Na+ (20.49 mg/l) > K+ (7.40 mg/l) > Mg2+ (2.81 mg/l) > Fe2+ (0.25 mg/l) = HCO3- (167.00 mg/l) > SO42- (47.78 mg/l) > Cl- (29.70 mg/l) > NO3- (0.03 mg/l) > PO43-  (0.02 mg/l). Water samples of the study area were under the normal chloride, normal sulfate and normal bicarbonate type. Hydrochemical indices strongly confirmed its inland origin with very low salinity hazard and base exchange reactions were more predominant than cation-anion exchange reactions. The hydrochemical facies were demarcated as Ca2+-HCO3- and mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- type. Gibbs diagram showed its dominant nature of rock-weathering and water chemistry was related to the lithology of the area. Suitability of the water for the use of livestock was evaluated based on total dissolved solids, magnesium, nitrate-nitrogen and sulfate. Irrigation quality was confirmed through the study of percent sodium (33.52 – 45.17 %), sodium adsorption ratio (0.51 – 1.25), magnesium hazard (5.70 – 20.82 %), Kelley’s ratio (0.08 – 0.36), residual sodium carbonate (0.63 – 1.46 meq/l) and residual sodium bicarbonate (0.76 – 1.74 meq/l) and these were found to be good in quality. USSL diagram and Wilcox diagram were found to be in consonance with its irrigation suitability.

Keywords: Hydrochemical facies, Surface water, Drinking, Irrigation and Livestock


© 2013 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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