International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 3 Issue 6 2013- June 2013    Pages: 2161-2171  <<Previous    Next>>

Intensive report on total analysis of drinking water quality in Lahore

Author Information:

Almas Hamid1, Ghazala Yaqub2, Zubi Sadiq3, Amra Tahir4, Noor ul Ain5

1, 2, 4, 5 - Department of Environmental Sciences, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore-54000, Pakistan

3- Department of Chemistry (Girls), College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa-31982, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT

In this paper quality of drinking water supplied by Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) is analyzed. Sampling units were tube well (direct source) and tap (indirect source) localized in different areas/towns of Lahore. For assessment, various physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, color, odor, turbidity, conductivity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, chloride, fluorides nitrates, lead and arsenic) were selected. Moreover bacteriological study was recorded by finding total coliform colonies. The study showed that in general physicochemical parameters were within the World Health Organization (WHO), Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQS) of Pakistan, both at source (tube well) and point of use (tap) except the levels of arsenic and fluoride that were found above the National Standards and WHO Standards. Average fluoride concentration in tube well sources was 1.50 mg/L while in tap water sources an average concentrations up to 1.58 mg/L was present, which are higher than the standard of ≤ 1.5 mg/L. Likewise average of tube-well and tap water sources had 0.05 mg/L of arsenic, out of which Wagah Town and Shalimar Town showed 0.1 mg/L of arsenic that is higher than the standards of ≤ 0.05 mg/L (National Standard) and 0.01 mg/L (WHO standard). Similarly there is an acute need to solve bacterial contamination in drinking water as few samples had very high level of bacteriological contamination. However, after employing disinfection technique via microwave and/or conventional heating methods, polluted samples showed improved results. On the larger scale, it is necessary to employ more effective chlorination plants functional at water sources while water mains and sewer lines should be at maximum distance to avoid this severe trouble.

Keywords: Water quality, Analysis, Physicochemical features, Bacteriological study, Lahore

DOI:10.6088/ijes.2013030600032

© 2013 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The electronic version of the article can be downloaded below

Download full text pdf

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend