International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 4 Issue 3 2013- November 2013    Pages: 402-414  <<Previous    Next>>

Water quality assessment of Swan River in Himachal Pradesh, India

Author Information:

Sharda. A.K, Sharma. M.P

Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667


The paper attempts  to evaluate water  quality indices (WQI)  using water quality parameters like pH,  Temperature, Dissolved  Oxygen (DO), Biochemical  Oxygen  Demand  (BOD), Turbidity, Total coli form,  Total Phosphorous, Total  Dissolved  Solids (TDS), Hardness,  Chloride (Cl), Nitrate (NO3),  Sulphate ( SO4)  and   Fluoride (F) measured at 8 locations on Swan River in HP of India. Water  quality  index (WQI) was determined using  National Sanitation Foundation Index  (NSFWQI)  and  overall  index  of  pollution (OIP) on  100 & 16 point scale  to  assess the  water  quality. The observed values of indices are compared with prescribed classes and ratings, which gives an idea about remedial measures to be taken for the abatement of pollution.  The results indicated   that  water  quality  of  Swan  river   varied  from  ‘Good  to   Medium’   by NSFWQI   and   ‘Acceptable   to  slightly  polluted’     by  OIP  method.  Further the  water  quality  of  the river  is found to vary  between   B & C  as   per  DBU   Classification  of   inland  surface  water  (CPCB  standards),  showing   that  water  is  fit  for   outdoor  bathing  and  for   drinking   water   with  conventional  treatment.  The  BOD  and   DO  exceeded  permissible  limits at   most   of  the   locations indicating the  deterioration of water   quality   due  to   the  lack  of  proper  sanitation, discharge  of  untreated  and  partially  treated  waste   waters  and  MSW into river.

Keywords: Water Quality Index (WQI),  National  Sanitation Foundation NSF(WQI) Limits, Overall  Index  of  Pollution OIP,  Dissolved  Oxygen (DO),  Bio-Chemical  Oxygen  Demand  (BOD), Most  Probable  Number ( MPN).


© 2013 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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