International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 2 Issue 4 2012           Pages:2454- 2461

SEM studies on the morphological adaptations of Trichoptera and Ephimeroptera of a western Himalayan hill stream

Author Information:

Jindal.R  Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014

Singh.D  Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014

Sharma.C  Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014


Studies made on the ecology of a Seer stream of western Himalaya revealed that torrential and turbulent nature of its water poses a great difficulty for the organisms to survive. The collected trichopteran and ephemeropteran larvae have been observed to possess many morphological features which serve as their adaptations for the fast flowing waters.  The larvae of Rhycophila obliterata and, Hydrosyche instabilis were found to possess stridulatory apparatus, net spinning capacity and C-shaped modified tarsal claws. In R.obliterata silk filament comes out from the posterior region which helps the insect to make firm contact and also in diving. Ephemeropterans (Rhithrogena pellucida, Choroterpes terratoma) have depicted a peculiar sitting position and friction pads with fine serrated spines, circlets and alternate arrangement of small and long spines have been noticed on the ventral side and on the legs.

Keywords:  Adaptations,    Rhycophila obliterata (McLachlan, 1865), Hydrosyche instabilis (Curtis, 1834), Rhithrogena pellucida (Daggy, 1945) , Choroterpes terratoma (Seemann, 1927).

DOI: 10.6088/ijes.00202030126

© 2012 Copyright Jindal.R et al, licensee IPA.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (2.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The electronic version of the article can be downloaded below.

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