International Journal of Environmental Sciences

Volume 3 Issue 2 2012- September 2012    Pages: 885-894 <<Previous    Next>>

Seasonal incidence of community acquired pneumonia and its mortality in Karachi - A multi-centric hospital based study

Author Information:

Mohammad Zeeshan Raza1, Ayesha Ahmed1, Fatima Ahmed1, Aiman Ghani1, Nadeem Rizvi2
1 - Medical student, Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences, Baba-E-Urdu Road, Karachi.
2- Head of the Department, Department Of Chest Medicine, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Rafique Shaheed Road Karachi, Pakistan.


Community acquired Pneumonia is a frequent infectious disease in our country having a high occurrence rate. It causes high fatality at the extremes of ages in the population. Hence, a detailed study has been attempted to study the differences among patients’ outcomes with community acquired pneumonia hospitalized for acute infection during different seasons of the year. It is a retrospective, observational hospital-based study. This study was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan (JPMC, AKUH and LNH) for a period of two years (2010-2011).  All patients having a primary diagnosis of CAP admitted to the hospitals for treatment of acute infection were included in the study. Monthly and seasonal trends, causative agents and mortality rates of these patients were taken into account while hospitalized. Thirty six percent of the CAP cases occurred in the winter season and only eighteen percent in the autumn season. Respiratory viruses were found to be more frequent in the winter and spring, whilst Mycoplasma Pneumonia CAP reached its peak incidence of forty five percent in the spring compared to fourteen percent in the winter season. Other etiologies of CAP included in the study did not show any significant seasonal predominance. Males in the age group of 45 and above had higher mortality rates compared to other age groups (p=0.001).Winter, with its low temperatures and other co-existing conditions prevalent in the elderly population has significant contribution in causing increased admissions and expiries in this age group. Also, the respiratory viruses show increased inclination in causing CAP and therefore, demonstrate tropism for the winter season.

Keywords: Community acquired Pneumonia, season, weather, outcome, mortality


© 2012 Copyright by the authors, licensee Integrated Publishing Association.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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