Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 1 - 2010

CONTENTS

GIS Study on Vulnerability Assessment of Water Quality in a Part of Cauvery River
Author(s)- S.Hema, T.Subramani, L.Elango

ABSTRACT

Cauvery River is one of the significant sources of water supply for domestic, agricultural and industrial usage in Tamil Nadu. Inspite of large scale utilization of the river water, poor water management has resulted in large scale degradation of the quality of water. Hence a detailed study has been attempted in the Cauvery River between the latitudes 110 29' 35.1" N & 100 57' 24" N and the longitudes 770 42' 40.7" E and 780 14' 17.9" E. Four major tributaries such as Bhavani River, Noyal River, Amaravathi River and Thirumanimuthar River confluence with the Cauvery River in the study region. About fifty water samples were collected in the Cauvery River during February-2009 and the samples were analyzed for the physical and chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, alkalinity, hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, CO32-, HCO3- NO3-,and F-. The analytical results were compared with the Indian (BIS) and International (WHO) standards to assess the suitability of water for drinking and the extent of deterioration. Spatial variations of various surface water quality parameters were studied using the Geographical Information System (GIS).The study indicates that some of the samples of February-2009 exceed the permissible limit for drinking. The study further reveals that the variation of water quality with respect to space and time is not uniform. Agricultural runoff, sewage and industrial effluents are the probable sources for the variation of water quality in the study region.

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Environmental performance studies on educational institutions
Author(s)- R.Gobinath, K.Rajeshkumar N.Mahendran
ABSTRACT
Sustainable development is widely used these days by the policy makers, academia, governments in all areas including developmental projects, and in many verticals. Sustainability is not only spoken in various levels but also practiced by industries and organizations to optimize their resource utilization and make them environmental friendly. Sustainability is the need of the hour for our country to provide our future generation a cleaner, safer environment, to achieve it there are many paths, one should be able to identify the best path related to their industry or organization to achieve sustainability. Various models and tools are already developed by researchers working on this domain which helps them to identify the focus areas where the optimization is possible to improve the environmental performance of the industry. Ecomap is one of such potential tool which can be used effectively used by any SME (small and medium enterprises) and industries for resource usage identification and optimization. It is highly versatile, applicable to many industries which enable them to optimize their resources and making them sustainable. In our country industrial development and blooming job market puts thrust to the increase in number of educational institutions, we have more than 7,00,000 educational institutions operating all over India. Educational institutions consume more natural resources than any SME’s, a developing University consumes about 8,00,000 liters of water and uses about 5,333, KWH of electricity per day for their operations. Thus educational institutions should also be focused with industries to preserve our natural resources and methods are to be developed to improve their environmental performance. Ecomap is not only applicable to industries but can also be employed in educational institutions for resource mapping and optimization. Ecomap if properly deployed will increase the sustainability of the institutions and reduce their resource consumption, which will benefit the institutions and the nation in many ways. This paper provides insight into Ecomapping, its principles, applications and methods to arrive the Ecomap for educational institutions with detailed case studies and applications. The environmental problems associated with educational institutions also discussed with the methods to map them in Ecomap.

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Techniques, tools and methods to determine coastal morphologic evolution & management for ‘coasts in crisis’ in ‘the state of kuwait’
Author(s)- Saji Baby
ABSTRACT
The coastal and marine resources hadsustained the local inhabitants for thousands of years. As with years the concern about coastal morphological change in Kuwait has led to the “Coasts in Crises’. Adoption of a number of preventative measures can assist in maintaining the status quo and sustain the natural coastal morphological environment.  The change in coastal landscape morphology can be documented by various techniques. The paper cites the integration of techniques, tools and methods for such studies which is being proposed and applied to determine and manage coasts in crisis due to morphological changes in Kuwait. The historic data assessment, analysis of remotely sensed data, geographical information system, vector analysis, fractal analysis, real time/aerial video monitoring, modeling, statistical analysis and data management supports in detecting, monitoring and studying the overall trends in coastal development and its impact. The recent development of new remote sensing sensors and software applications has transformed some of these techniques into powerful methods and tools for studying the degree of changes in coastal morphology. This paper depicts about the techniques that would aid in developing management strategies to combat the coastal deterioration of Kuwait.

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Groundwater Contamination due to Municipal Solid waste disposal- A GIS based study in Erode city

Author(s)- N.Rajkumar, T.Subramani L.Elango
ABSTRACT

            Erode city, the head quarters of Erode District is located on the bank of Cauvery River in Tamil Nadu state. It lies between 11° 17’ N and 11° 23' N latitudes and 77° 40’ E and 77° 46' E longitudes with an approximate aerial extent of 120 km2. The city depends on Cauvery River for its drinking water supply. In addition to Cauvery River water, people in this region also depend on the groundwater resources for their domestic, agricultural and industrial needs. Urbanization and improper disposal of solid wastes lead to contamination of groundwater and surface water resources in this region. Municipal solid wastes of the city are presently disposed as open landfills at three distinct sites namely Vendipalayam, Vairapalayam and Semur. The leaches of the open dump yards directly contaminate the groundwater and surface water resources leading unsuitability of water for drinking at many places. Hence, a detailed study has been carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) to understand the spatial variation of surface water and groundwater quality. About forty three groundwater samples and seven surface water samples were collected during February, 2009 from the study region, and the samples were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Alkalinity, Hardness, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, NO3- and F-. The concentrations of physical and chemical constituents in the water samples were compared with the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) standard to know the suitability of water for drinking. The study indicates that the water quality parameters exceed the permissible limits for drinking at many locations leading the water unsuitable for drinking.  The spatial variation of groundwater quality parameters was also plotted using GIS.  

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Modified EIA for small and medium projects – An effective method to make the projects Eco –friendly
Author(s)- B.Ganeshkumar, Gobinath , N.Prabhakaran , K.Rajeshkumar

ABSTRACT
Environmental Impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible impact–positive or negative–that a proposed project may have on the natural environment. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts to decide whether to proceed with the project. In general EIA is used to identify the environmental impacts of projects of larger magnitude all over the world owing to their social impacts. Smaller projects which will also affect the environment persistently are normally taken as low key issue in EIA such as Small and medium industries but they are creating permanent environmental degradation owing to their operation methods. Educational institutions are one among the industries where the focus is to be shifted because of their incessant environmental impacts and resource consumption. Normal procedure of EIA cannot be applied to small scale industries (Arquiaga et al. 1992) and educational institutions because of its tediousness, slight modifications are to be made in order to make the whole process simple and applicable to any size of project or operation. This paper gives an insight into EIA, methods of doing EIA, discusses its applicability and also suggests changes to be made in the EIA process to make it applicable to small sized projects.

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Remote Sensing and GIS Approach for the Water Pollution and Management In Tiruchirappli Taluk, Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s)- Alaguraja .P, Yuvaraj .D, Sekar.M Muthuveerran.P  Manivel .M 

ABSTRACT
The present study area confined only to the Tiruchirappalli taluk which was surrounded by Srirangam taluk in north and west, Thanjavur district in east and southern portion was covered by Pudukottai district. Water resource development has taken place all over the world. There is a tremendous amount of pressure in protecting the water resources available in the country. Protecting the surface water resources from wastewater pollution plays a vital role for the development. The disposal of wastewater into the surface water bodies leads to serious problems and affects the people in health aspects. Especially in the urban areas, the pollution of domestic effluent discharges into the nearby surface water bodies created problems for the public. There are many ways of safe disposal of wastewater. But improper management of wastewater generation in the urban areas find its own way of getting into the surface water. To prepare base map from SOI Toposheets within 1:50000 scale. To demarcate the administrative division of the study area with prepare various thematic layers in the block. Remote sensing study through IRS 1D LISS III, satellite imagery and SRTM data. The above details gathered from government and NGOs, the study objectives came into a final target that the urbanization and industrialization preferably the main reason for the water pollution in the environment. Water pollution promotes the disturbances in the total surroundings in relation to health, traffic concession, over exploitation in and around the polluted area.  

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Analysis of drinking water problem in Coimbatore City Corporation,
Tamilnadu, India using Remote Sensing and GIS tools
Author(s)- Yuvaraj .D, Alaguraja .P. Sekar.M, Muthuveerran.P,Manivel .M  

ABSTRACT

            Drinking water is most essential for livelihoods and for other consumptions. Here, the drinking water supply in Coimbatore City Corporation was chosen for the study. Due to over population, increase in drinking water consumption was arisen. Relevant data were collected from relevant Government departments. The data were analyzed and the objective of the study was derived from the data analysis. Suitable suggestions and recommendations were made to decrease the problem of drinking water supply in a proper manner. This attempt will helpful to decrease the drinking water and its attribute problems in the study area and it lead to a sustainable example for future generations and also be a good fore step for the research field too. 

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Evaluation of water quality index for drinking purposes of river Subernarekha in Singhbhum District
Author(s)-Kavita Parmar, Vineeta Parmar

ABSTRACT

            An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen Demand (BOD), Most Probable Number (MPN), Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and pH measured at five different stations along the river basin from November 2006 to November 2007 . Rating curves were drawn based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Bhargava WQI method   was used to find overall WQI along the stretch of the river basin. Five point rating scale was used to classify water quality in each of the study areas. It was found that the water quality of Subernarekha varied from Excellent to Marginal range by Bhargava WQI method. It was observed that the impact of human activity was severe on most of the parameters. The MPN values exceeded the tolerable limits at almost all the stations. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites ,high anthropogenic activities and and direct discharge of industrial effluent.

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Management of Municipal Solid Waste by Vermicompost- A case study of Eluru
Author(s)-
J.Sudhir Kumar, Venkata Subbiah.K, Prasada Rao.P.V.V

ABSTRACT

         Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Land fills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But, the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing land fills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to land fills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of land fills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Household surveys are done in six divisions of Eluru Municipal Corporation, A.P, India and per-capita waste for the corporation is estimated. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by vermi’s which converts the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients i.e., Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 – 65 tons of wet waste is generated in Eluru per day and if this wet waste  is converted to quality compost  12.30 tons of  vermi compost can be generated. If  Municipal Corporation of Eluru(MCE) manages this wet waste an income of over rupees 0.89 crores per anum can be earned by MCE which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public.

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Groundwater Quality Modeling of Amaravathi River Basin of Karur District, Tamil Nadu, Using Visual Modflow
Author(s)-
R.Rajamanickam, S.Nagan

ABSTRACT

        Amaravathi river basin at the down stream of Karur Town is severely polluted due to discharge of partially treated effluent by the textile bleaching and dyeing units. There are 487 units and they treat the effluent either in individual effluent treatment plant (IETP) or common effluent treatment plant (CETP). Daily about 14600m3 of coloured effluent with total dissolved solids (TDS) in the range of 5,000 - 10,000 mg/l is let into river Amaravathi. A study has been conducted using Visual MODFLOW 2.8.1 version. The study area is limited to 320 sq.km. This 320 sq.km is divided into 4572 cells with grid size of 350m x 200m with two layers. The groundwater monitoring data, lithology, hydro geological parameters, topography, rain fall data obtained from PWD, CGWB, Survey of India, India Metrological Department are used in the model. The MODFLOW and MT3D models are calibrated and validated. The validated model is used for simulation of the ground water quality for next 15 years under five difference scenarios:- (i) if the present system with 10,000 mg/L TDS discharge into river continues, (ii) if the CETPs meet the TDS discharge standards of 2100 mg/L and discharge the effluent into river, (iii) if the quantum of discharge is doubled with TDS level of 2100 mg/L, (iv) if the dyeing units go for reverse osmosis plant and recycle the entire effluent and achieve zero discharge, (v) 1.5 time groundwater recharge and zero discharge by the units. The simulation results show there is no improvement in groundwater quality even the effluent meet the discharge standards for the next ten years. When the units go for zero discharge then there will be an improvement in the quality of groundwater over a period of few years.

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