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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 1 - 2010

CONTENTS

Rainfall Trends and Pattern of Kongu Upland, Tamil Nadu, India using GIS Techniques
Author(s)- Ishappa Muniyappa Rathod,. Aruchamy.S

ABSTRACT

The rainfall is the one of the fundamental physical parameter among the climate as for the development of society is concern and it determines the drought as well as the environmental factors for the particular region. The present study deals with the rainfall characteristics of the Kongu Upland, which includes the spatial distribution and variability through different seasons, and precipitation ratio. The study is based on 49 years of the monthly rainfall data for 40 rain gauge stations. While analyzing the long term average of monthly and annual rainfall, the annual rainfall of the region is 975.64 mm, of which the winter, summer, southwest and northeast monsoon records 24.16, 160.55, 401.19 and 389.73 mm respectively. The station Upper Niradam receives the highest rainfall of 4655.5 mm whereas Krishnapuram records the lowest of 414.4 mm. The annual variability ranges from 19.69 percent to 56.59 percent. The west, North West, North East and southern part of the region experience the heavy rainfall, whereas the east and central part of the region experiences the lowest rainfall

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Pesticide-Resistant Bacterial Strain
Author(s)- Osama el gialani elsaid ,Azhari Omer Abdelbagi, Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh

ABSTRACT

Mutant strains of bacteria were isolated through consecutive exposure to elevated concentration of endosulfan under carbon free media.  The results showed that the most tolerant bacteria were Bacillus sp. The comparative degradation of endosulfan by mutant and their wild types was studied under soil conditions. Results showed that wild types (present in large number) showed faster decrease in half lives compared to the mutant strains (few in numbers). However mutant strains might have greater potential if they find a chance to propagate in massive numbers.

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Electrical and Electronic Waste Management Practice by households in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Author(s)- Junaidah Ahmad Kalana

ABSTRACT

Increase in the end of life of electrical and electronic products depends on the economic growth of the country, population growth, market penetration, technology upgradation, and obsolescence rates. It can be assumed that the disposal of electronic products is fundamentally driven by the production of new ones. The management of electronic waste has become an environmental concern in many developing countries as urbanization continues to take place. Hence, this study was conducted in Shah Alam City which is the state capital of Selangor, Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to identify current electronic waste management practices by households in Shah Alam, Selangor. In other to ensure a higher response rate, face-to-face interviews were employed for primary data collection as the interview survey method. Information on knowledge level, attitude and practice on use and EEE disposal was collected using questionnaires. The findings show that the preferred methods of electronic waste disposal by Shah Alam residents are storage and sale as second-hand equipment, is about 48% and 37% respectively. Only a fraction of electronic waste (22%) finds it way to recycling facilities as there is no efficient take-back scheme for consumers. Most of the households do not know where and how to dispose of electronic waste in a proper manner. Consequently, they resort to disposing electronic waste outside their premises together with other household wastes. The government needs to improve collaboration among stakeholders in order to enhance public awareness on electronic waste.

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Ground water quality characteristics at Erode district, Tamilnadu India
Author(s)- Kavitha.R, Elangovan.K

ABSTRACT

Ground water samples were collected from 60 locations in Erode District during pre-monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Ground water samples were tested for 11 physico-chemical parameters following the standard methods and procedures. World Health Organisation(WHO) standards were adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI). Comparison of observed and estimated values based on water quality indices revealed that drinking water at almost all the locations were found to be highly contaminated, except a few locations, where it was found to be moderately contaminated for both the monsoons. WQI provides an easy and rapid method of monitoring of water quality. It also becomes easier to compare the quality levels in different locations and to give priority for the required treatment to the location.

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Waste to Energy – A case study of Eluru city, Andhra Pradesh
Author(s)- J.Sudhir Kumar,K.Venkata Subbaiah, Prasada Rao

ABSTRACT

Ground water samples were collected from 60 locations in Erode District during pre-monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Ground water samples were tested for 11 physico-chemical parameters following the standard methods and procedures. World Health Organisation(WHO) standards were adopted for calculation of Water Quality Index (WQI). Comparison of observed and estimated values based on water quality indices revealed that drinking water at almost all the locations were found to be highly contaminated, except a few locations, where it was found to be moderately contaminated for both the monsoons. WQI provides an easy and rapid method of monitoring of water quality. It also becomes easier to compare the quality levels in different locations and to give priority for the required treatment to the location.

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Designing and hosting of biotechnology gateway
Author(s)- Neelakandan B,  Malatesh.N  , Surulinathi M  Srinivasa Ragavan S

ABSTRACT

Gateways give an opportunity to authors/scholars/users for providing an input of information resource through its template, though it is further evaluated and assessed by gateway editors keeping in view the audience and context/content for inclusion into the subject gateways. The accepted resource is then classified, indexed and catalogued. The Internet today contains huge amount of global information. To access the required, specific, relevant, and quality information is not an easy job. The information to be accessed has a definite purpose and theme. This paper explains the need and scope of creating a subject based gateway related to domain specific content such as Biotechnology, Nanotechnology etc. There are several resources coming up for the emerging fields both in open sources and in conventional methods. In the recent decades subject based content collection gateways are increasing around the globe, this paper explains about one such gateway  related to Biotechnology.

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An Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability to Irrigated Agriculture in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India – A GIS Approach
Author(s)- Balachandar. D, Sundararaj P, Rutharvel Murthy K, Kumaraswamy K.

ABSTRACT

The problems of water quality have become more important than the quantity, as the environmental problems are getting more serious in different parts of the world.  A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water happens to stay or move and interact with ground and biological characteristics. This influences greatly on the groundwater quality of an area.  This study is made to evaluate the status of groundwater quality and its suitability to irrigated agriculture.  For this study, 44 & 42 observation wells in 2005 and 44 & 39 observation wells in 2008 have been taken into consideration to study the variation in pre & post monsoon season.  These observation wells are regularly maintained by Public Works Department of Government of Tamil Nadu.  Water quality data are utilized in the present study for the analysis of groundwater chemistry of years 2005 and 2008 for both pre-monsoon (July) and post-monsoon (December) seasons.  Water quality data used in the analysis include Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR).

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Alternative Fuel for Transportation
Author(s)- Anshu Srivastava, Shakun Srivastava, Nigam.A.C

ABSTRACT

The world of century 2000 present many critical challenges. One of the most important challenges concerns the environment .As population increases and the standard of living improves, there is an increasing concern that there will a shortage of energy to heat our homes and power the vehicles we clean air, clean water and biodegradable, renewable materials. Advances in technology have allowed development of alternative energy sources. Ethanol is a good alternative energy sources. My present paper focuses attention towards not only the Types of energy resources to be used i.e. Non- conventional sources but the Alarming question is “How much and way of Producing and Managing Energy”? So we are giving more attention towards the better and better exploitation of Energy through Biological Approach i.e. Use of Bioenergy. Increased use of ethanol as fuel has developed since the late 1970’s. It was first used as product extender because of gasoline shortage. The OPEC action called attention to the fact that the United States was extremely dependent on foreign oil. The focus shifted once again to the alternative fuel such as ethanol. At that time gasoline containing ethanol was called gasoline. Later on unleaded plus or super unleaded are two examples of names used today. Ethanol, used as gasoline component, improves combustion and reduces emission of CO which contributes to the formation of smog. Using ethanol can slow global warming. During past two decades enormous efforts were made to harness Bioenergy sources in India to meet up the growing demand of energy for domestic use in particular, as such Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) under the Ministry of Power and Energy was setup in 1982.So the urgent need of the day is to implement the process and use of Biological energy in our day to day life to make our Environment Pollution free and our country self dependent and reliable in this field.

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Assessment and Spatial Distribution of Quality of Groundwater in Zone-II and III, Greater Visakhapatnam, India Using Water Quality Index (WQI) and GIS
Author(s)- Swarna Latha.P , Nageswara Rao.K

ABSTRACT

Assessment and mapping of quality of groundwater is an important quantity, because the physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater determine its suitability for agricultural, industrial and domestic usages. The present study appraises the groundwater quality of Greater Visakhapatnam, Zone II and III areas with the estimation of water quality index and coupled with GIS technology. Inverse distance weighted (IDW) raster interpolation technique of spatial analyst module in ArcGIS software has been used to generate the spatial distribution of water pollutants of constituents. Based on the analysis, most of the area under study falls in moderately polluted to severely polluted zone. The results revealed that the groundwater was not suitable for drinking purpose in most of the areas due to the influence of sewage, saltwater intrusion, industrial and high urban concentration.

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The Effect of Pure and Mixed Plantations of Robinia Pseudoacasia and Pinus Eldarica on Traffic Noise Decrease
Author(s)- Maleki K,Hosseini S. M, Nasiri P

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine the effect of three different plantation types including pure and mixed plantations of Robinia pseudoacasia and Pinus eldarica on noise pollution reduction in Chitgar forest park of Tehran. A point source of noise was positioned in front of each plantation type and the noise level at different distances was measured with a noise meter. Noise values were taken at four measurement points; open area as control treatment (without trees), the urban forests of pure stands of Pinus eldarica and Robinia pseudoacasia and mixed stand and at 7 various distances (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75,100m from the noise source, behind tree stands) and 5 repetitions. Among the measured points, mixed stands had the best effect on noise pollution reduction which was about 16.91 dB (A) (decibel) in the distance of 100 meters and up to the permitted level. Noise level reduction was 15.77 dB (A) 50 meter away from noise source within the same stand. Regarding to the negligible difference between the noise reduction effectiveness of these two distances and some limitations to develop urban forests, the tree belts with 50 meters width is recommended to reduce the noise pollution to its standard size. 

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Surface activity of extracellular products of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa
isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil
Author(s)- Anyanwu, Chukwudi U

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil of Nsukka, South-East Nigeria produces surface-active compounds when grown in different carbon sources tested. The surface properties of the culture supernatants of the isolate, using water-soluble and water-insoluble carbon sources as substrates are described in terms of surface tension and emulsification index. Water-soluble substrates showed better surface activity than water-insoluble substrates. The surface tension of the culture supernatants was lowest with glucose (34.5 dynes/cm) followed by sucrose (38.6 dynes/cm), glycerol (40.2 dynes/cm), fructose (41.8 dynes/cm), hexadecane (50.4 dynes/cm) and paraffin oil (56.4 dynes/cm). The culture supernatants showed emulsification index of between 52% and 85% and the emulsion formed remained stable during an extended ageing period of 30 days. The biosurfactants formed by the isolate retained surface active properties after exposure to high temperature (1000C), a wide range of pH (4 – 12) and high salinity (16%).

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Energy elevation and economic analysis of canola production in Iran a case
study: Mazandaran province
Author(s)- A. Taheri-Garavand, A. Asakereh, K. Haghani

ABSTRACT

Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agroprocessing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in dry farming canola production, to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of canola farming in Behshahr County of Iran. Data were collected from 62 canola farms by using a face to face questionnaire method. The results revealed that canola production consumed a total of 28705.3 MJ/ha of which chemical fertilizer and diesel fuel energy consumption was 65.5% and 30%, respectively. Output Energy was 41230 MJ/ha. Output– input energy ratio and specific energy of production were 1.44 and 15.1 MJ/kg, respectively. Non-renewable energy was 99% total input energy that concluded that canola production needs to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in production and to employ renewable energy. Total cost ware was 641.1 USD and Benefit- cost ratio and net income ware 0.86 and 550 USD respectively. 

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Relationship between peroxidase and catalase with metabolism and environmental factors in Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)   in three different elevations
Author(s)- R. Zolfaghari , S. M. Hosseini , S. A. A. Korori

ABSTRACT

The activities of peroxidase and catalase determined in Beech (Fagus orientalis) twigs during a year. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were observed to be lowest during late spring-summer, or active growing season and highest during the late autumn-winter, or dormant season. The maximum catalase activity and number of peroxidase isozyme bands were showed in February, especially in high elevation, when temperate mean was lowest during all sampling months that these could be related to protective against frost. Whereas the maximum peroxidase activity and gradual increasing of number of cationic peroxidase isozyme bands were found in November when trees prepared for winter chilling. Also there was relationship between increasing of peroxidase activity and number of anionic peroxidase isozyme bands with metabolic processes in trees such as leaf flushing, flowering, etc.

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Drinking water quality management through correlation studies among various physico-chemical parameters: A case study
Author(s)- Navneet Kumar, D.K. Sinha

ABSTRACT

Statistical regression analysis of twelve data points of underground drinking water of IM2 hand pumps at Moradabad, India was carried out to study the correlation between various physico-chemical parameters. Twelve water quality parameters of water of all sites were estimated following standard methods and procedures of sampling and estimation. Comparison of estimated values with W.H.O. standards revealed that water of study area is polluted and water quality management is urgently needed. Regression analysis of these data points suggests that conductivity of drinking water is an important parameter and it is significantly correlated with ten parameters out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that drinking water quality can be checked effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. Present study may be treated as one step ahead towards the drinking water quality management.

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Participatory approach for socially and Environmentally Sustainable Modernisation of Existing Irrigation and Drainage Schemes in India
Author(s)- Sanjay S. Phadnis,Mukul Kulsreshtha,Meenal Phadnis

ABSTRACT

The environment is treated as a marginal issue while it is actually key to sustainable water management. Socially and Environmentally sustainable development and management of Irrigation and Drainage Scheme is a critical and complex issue for both rich and poor countries. To meet the demand of water users, management of water resources demands an integrated and participatory approach. Active participation of farmers without gender bias and their contribution in any water conservation and management programme is absolute necessity in present time. Information dissemination, Education and Training is key to success of Water conservations and management programmes. This paper presents a critical review of ongoing projects undertaken by Government and non government agencies for socially and environmentally sustainable development of water sector in India based on Integrated and participatory approach.

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