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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 3 - 2010

CONTENTS

Studies on Concrete containing E plastic waste
Author(s)- Lakshmi.R, Nagan.S

ABSTRACT

Utilization of waste materials and by-products is a partial solution to environmental and ecological problems. Use of these materials not only helps in getting them utilized in cement, concrete and other construction materials, it helps in reducing the cost of cement and concrete manufacturing, but also has numerous indirect benefits such as reduction in land-fill cost, saving in energy, and protecting the environment from possible pollution effects. Electronic waste, abbreviated as e-waste, consists of discarded old computers, TVs, refrigerators, radios – basically any electrical or electronic appliance that has reached its end-of-life.  Efforts have been made in the concrete industry to use non biodegradable components of E waste as a partial replacement of the coarse or fine aggregates. An experimental study is made on the utilization of  E-waste particles as coarse aggregates in concrete with a percentage replacement ranging from 0 % to 30% on the strength criteria of M20 Concrete. Compressive strength, Tensile strength  and Flexural strength of Concrete with and without E-waste as aggregates was observed which exhibits a good strength gain. Ultrasonic tests on strength properties were executed and the feasibility of utilizing E plastic particles as  partial replacement of coarse aggregate has been presented.

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Soil Contamination in Nuclear Reactor Surrounding Areas in Savar, Bangladesh using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method
Author(s)- Shahabuddin et.al.,

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the contamination level of fourteen elements (Al, Ca, Mg, V, Ti, Na, Mn, As, Br, La, Sm Sc, U, Yb) from different soil samples of  the nuclear reactor surrounding areas  in Savar, Bangladesh was  investigated with  instrumental  neutron  activation  analysis  (INAA) method. Generally,  neutron activation  is most  reliable  tool  for  determining  the  concentration  of  the  trace  elements  and  heavy metals by measuring  the gamma  rays  released while decaying of  the  radioisotopes created  from  the interaction of neutrons with atoms. In this study, the soil contamination level of all heavy metals and trace elements was compared to the range, mean, and median values of the World soil as well as with other studies. The concentration of K (1.65%), U (3.17 mg kg1), Sm (6.10 mgkg-1 ) and Sc (10.53 mg kg-1 )  is  relatively higher  than  that of  the World mean value. Furthermore, compared  to world  range value  for  soil  revealed  that  the  high  concentration  range  is  also  observed  for Al  (3.87-9.39%), Na (0.37-0.76%)  and  Yb  (0.11-5.36  mg  kg-1 ).  However,  contamination  level  of  all  elements  was  not evenly distributed  in  the  studied areas. For  instance,  the pollution  levels of U, Yb, Mn, and V were unevenly higher in the areas near to the overhead tank, decay tank, in the vicinity of the underground tank,  cooling  tower  and  reactor building  area. Interestingly,  the  contamination  level of potassium  is high everywhere near the nuclear reactor installations.

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Preparation of Carbonaceous Heavy Metal Adsorbent from Shorea Robusta Leaf Litter Using Phosphoric Acid Impregnation
Author(s)- Surya Narayan Dash, Ramachandra Murthy.Ch.V

ABSTRACT

In the present study, Shorea Robusta leaf litter, a non-convectional material, is proposed as a novel material for preparation of carbonaceous adsorbent impregnated with phosphoric acid, used for the reduction of Zinc and Copper metal ions from aqueous phase. For batch process, operating variables studied were adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, pH and temperature. Sorption experiments indicated that the sorption capacity was dependent on operating variables and the process was strongly pH-dependent. Kinetic measurements showed that the process was uniform and rapid. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption, kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and intra-particle diffusion model. Among the kinetic models studied, the pseudo-second-order equation was the best applicable model to describe the sorption process. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The Langmuir model yields a much better fit than the Freundlich and Temkin models. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sorption. The value of H is negative, indicating that the Zinc and Copper adsorption by the simulated activated carbon are exothermic in nature.

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Docking studies on abscisic acid receptor pyrabactin receptor 1 (pyr1) and pyrabactin like receptor1 (pyl1)
Author(s)- Ashokan.K.V

ABSTRACT

The ability of PYR1 and PYL1 to bind to ABA and regulate the various stress response is almost confirmed recently. The production of ABA is very difficult and expensive; hence to search some analogues that can mimic the ABA and are cheap, active in triggering the drought tolerance or minimal adverse effects on the environment is needed. The present work identified five distinct analogues of ABA by Hex docking procedure. All these analogues showed increased binding energy to PYR1 and partially to PYL1 comparing to the ABA. The result was validated by atomic contact energy prediction by PtchDock tool. The study should be substantiated by using ADME/T tools which reduce the time and cost in the production new synthetic stress hormone (drug).    
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Effect of non linear sorption on solute transport in a coupled
sinusoidal fracture-matrix system
Author(s)- Natarajan.N, Suresh Kumar.G

ABSTRACT

Modeling of solute transport through fractured rock is an important aspect of many disciplines including groundwater contamination, radioactive and nuclear waste disposal. Several studies have been conducted on fracture-matrix coupled system using parallel plate model and recently solute and thermal transport has been numerically modeled. The effect of non-linear sorption has been studied using the sinusoidal fracture geometry. The results suggest as the sorption intensity reduces, the sorption becomes more favorable and the concentration along the fracture reduces. The sorption intensity has a negligible effect with increase in fracture aperture and the sorption of solutes to the fracture surface is significant for large fracture apertures unlike the parallel plate model due to the curvature of the sinusoidal fracture.   
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Physico chemical properties of water collected from Dhamra estuary
Author(s)- Muduli Bipra Prasanna, Panda Chitta Ranjan

ABSTRACT

The temporal and spatial distribution of salinity, DO, BOD, turbidity, pH, hardness and dissolved nutrients of surface water collected from different points of Dhamra estuary were measured during February-2007 to January-2008. The pH of water was alkaline throughout the year. The salinity, conductance, hardness increased towards the river mouth as compared to inland stations. The DO level was found to be ~ 8 mg/l while BOD remained < 3 mg/l in all cases. Nutrients (NO3, PO4, and NH3) in general exhibited decreasing trend from riverine to estuarine region. TDS values were high in the riverine and TSS values were high during monsoon period due to higher amount of floating particles. The concentration of NO3- was higher than NH3 and PO4 although the values were well within tolerance limits. 
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Ambient Air Quality Status in Choudwar Area of Cuttack District
Author(s)- Pradeepta K. Bhuyan, Pradyusa Samantray, Swoyam P Rout

ABSTRACT

There are several methods to communicate the use of different environmental quality parameters. This research communication discusses the use of Air Quality Index (AQI) describing air pollution in Choudwar area. AQI is computed for ten air quality sampling stations in the Choudwar area within the radius 10 kms from the core zone. This study identifies the potential sources of air pollution.
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Stochastic Production Frontier Analysis of Water Supply Utility of Urban Cities in the State of Madhya Pradesh, India
Author(s)- Amit Vishwakarma , Mukul Kulshrestha

ABSTRACT

In the Era of Globalization, Urbanization and Industrialization there is a major task of Public utility to fulfill the requirement of the people quatitavely and qualititatively in developing countries like India. In India till now performance assessment and efficiency evaluation of public utility (water supply and sanitation utility) by use of benchmarking methodologies, not in a regular practice. Benchmarking gives a clear idea about the significance of indicators which affect the efficiency of a utility directly or indirectly to the regulators, stakeholders and law makers. By applying Stochastic production function on Water utility of urban cities in the State of Madhya Pradesh we get the results that Municipality of Bhopal, Indore, Guna,  Jabalpur, Satna, Khargone, Neemuch and Vidisha urban city performed better and scored highest estimated efficiencies while evaluation is based on SFA production function.
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Removal of high organics containing wastewater in a shaft-type activated sludge hybrid reactor
Author(s)- Debabrata Mazumder

ABSTRACT

A shaft-type activated sludge reactor has been developed with a view to improve the organics removal efficiency. It was added with (10 – 30) g/L tyre tube beads of average size 5 mm to make a hybrid system. The removal of organics in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) was studied. The batch study with 1000 – 4000 mg/L of COD showed improvement in the sludge settleability. The values of Ks, k, Y and kd were measured as 298.59 mg/L, 0.113 h-1, 0.6397 kg MLSS/kg COD removed and 0.0025 h-1 respectively. The maximum COD removal efficiency was observed as 88% for an organic loading rate of 3.00 kg d-1m-3. The maximum BOD5 removal efficiency was attained as 89.2% for a loading rate of 2.71 kg d-1m-3. The Maximum value of substrate utilization co-efficient for synthesis and endogenous respiration was observed as 0.852 h-1 and 0.0198 h-1 respectively.
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Bridging the Gaps:  An E-waste management and recycling assessment of material recycling facilities in Selangor and Penang
Author(s)- John Babington C, Chamhuri Siwar, Ahmad Fariz  M, Rawshan Ara B

ABSTRACT

The uses of electronic and electrical devices have relatively increased with rapid increases in economic and technological development over some period of time in Malaysia. There is needs for Malaysia to apply “3R” principles of reduce, reuse and recycle for efficient control and management of material circle of electronic and electrical equipments (EEE). This paper tends to highlight, the e-waste recycling practice within the material recovery facilities (MRF) studied in Selangor and Penang, the guidelines overseeing the e-waste recycling activities, stakeholders and future plans for e-waste management in Malaysia. A total of 25 questionnaires were sent to MRF through email, fax and personal delivery and a questionnaire with personal discussion held with the department of environment (DOE) Malaysia. The result shows that e-waste recycling in Malaysia is still at infancy as there are no sophisticated technologies to carry out complete recycling process in a MRF, lack of specific regulation on e-waste, poor e-waste collection from households at the same time help us to understand various activities going on within the MRF studied. The findings from this study will help the waste management authorities in bridging the gaps that militate against proper e-waste management in Malaysia.
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Hydropower opportunities in the water industry
Author(s)- Theophilus Gaius-obaseki

ABSTRACT

Water and wastewater treatment processes are energy intensive accounting for around 30 to 80 percent of the industry production cost. Given this background, the water companies agree on the need to identify cost effective and sustainable ways of producing energy  to reduce its dependence on fossil fuel for energy generation, reduce its carbon emissions, ensure the security of its power supply and  offset the increasingly energy cost. Micro-hydropower, a resource that is readily available at the door step of the water companies has been identified as the solution to a sustainable energy option for the industry. Nonetheless, there are no detailed options in the available literature of hydropower application to the water industry. This paper thus gives an overview of hydropower application options available to the water industry (water and wastewater treatment industry.
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Color Enhancement studies on Etroplus Maculatus using Astaxanthin and B-Carotene
Author(s)- Manimegalai et al.,

ABSTRACT

Two variants of E.maculatus (single black spot and single black spot with transverse lines) were chosen for this experiment. Artificial feed were prepared by incorporating with Astaxanthin and β-carotene in different concentrations (20ppm, 40ppm, 60ppm, 80ppm and 100ppm for astaxanthin and β-carotene separately and 50ppm, 100ppm for astaxanthin and β-carotene mixed) and control feed also prepared without any pigments. The fish were fed at the rate of 2% body weight per day. During the whole period of treatment, daily the feed intake was calculated and recorded. On 10th day, the skin sample from each group was collected for HPLC analysis to confirm and read the increase of astaxanthin and β-carotene pigments in the treated fish E.maculatus. Results from this study show that dieary astaxanthin was more effective than β-carotene in deposition of body astaxanthin in this fish. Since body astaxanthin and β-carotene in mixed -fed fish were not different from those in astaxanthin fed fish, replacing half of dietary astaxanthin with β-carotene should be more cost-effective.                       .

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