Open Access

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 4 - 2010

CONTENTS

A comparative study on energy and water use indicators for soybean production under different irrigation systems in Iran
Author(s)- Mousavi-Avval SH, Rafiee S, Jafari A

ABSTRACT

In this study source wise and operation wise energy consumption for soybean production under canal and pump irrigation system conditions were investigated. Also energy and water indicators were analyzed to better understand the main effects from utilization of different irrigation systems on water and energy use. For these purposes data were collected from 94 soybean producers in Golestan province of Iran, using a face to face questionnaire method. The results revealed that under pump and canal irrigation conditions the total energy input was 38266.71 and 17255.96 MJ ha-1, and energy use efficiency was 2.14 and 4.62, respectively. The three major energy consumer inputs under pump irrigation system were electricity, fertilizers and diesel fuel; while in canal irrigation conditions they were fertilizers, diesel fuel and indirect energy of irrigation, respectively. On the other hand, water energy use efficiency was calculated as 3.68 and 29.94 for pump and canal irrigation conditions, respectively. Water energy ratio under canal irrigation was found to be 58.23%, from which the shares of direct and indirect energies of irrigation were 49.08 % and 9.15%, respectively; while under canal irrigation conditions it was found to be 15.42% and the contribution of direct energy compared to indirect energy for irrigation was relatively low. In order to reduce energy consumption and improve energy use efficiency and water productivity, it is suggested to use canal irrigation systems, design suitable schemes for high irrigation efficiency and to improve the energy use efficiency for of water pumping systems.

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Geomorphic Controls of Arsenic in Ground Water in Purbasthali I & II Blocks of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India
Author(s)- Biplab Biswas

ABSTRACT

Arsenic values in groundwater above the maximum permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l (Indian standards) have been reported from Bhagirathi-Hooghly flood plain region of West Bengal. The present study area Purbasthali I and II blocks in Burdwan district, West Bengal, evolved due to the flood plain forming processes. Many flood plain features are mapped using satellite image. Close links with the geomorphic features and arsenic pollution in the tube wells are observed here. It has been studied that the higher amount (>0.50mg) of arsenic content tube wells are located around the major flood plain features. It is concluded that the processes of sedimentation is mainly responsible for arsenic deposition in the aquifers. People living along the major flood plain features must be provided alternative safe drinking water.

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Development of Decision Support System for Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A Review
Author(s)- Ohri.A, Singh.P.K

ABSTRACT

The complexity of issues involved in municipal solid waste management necessitates development and application of new tools capable of processing data inputs of varying formats, numerical models and expert opinions in multi objective decision making scenario.Decision Support Systems (DSS) are among the most promising approaches to confront such situations. After adoption of Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 in India, the necessity of development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) has further increased. Most DSS for solid waste management (SWM) constructed in the past deal with one or a few components of the whole process. This segmented approach does not provide a complete view of the interactions and effects of all functional elements in the whole complex system. In constructing the DSS, various elements must be integrated and optimized as per the required regulative, technical and social framework to produce a viable model that has practical applications. The DSS models should ideally be integrated with geographical information system (GIS) to optimize collection, transportation, processing and disposal processes. This paper attempts to present an overview of DSS in the area of solid waste management with specific reference to their development and applications in India.  There appears a definite need for development of a comprehensive and user friendly EDSS for solid waste management in Indian regulative and social set up. A conceptual frame work for one such proposed decision support system, named ‘EDSS-MSWI’ has been discussed.

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Seasonal Levels of Essential Metals in Fresh and Fried Marine Shrimp and Fishes from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria 
Author(s)- Badejo A., Adeyemo, O.K., Ojo, S.O.

ABSTRACT

Transition metals are essential for health, forming integral components of proteins involved in all aspects of biological function. However, in excess these metals are potentially toxic, and to maintain metal homeostasis organisms must tightly coordinate metal acquisition and excretion. The diet is the main source for essential metals, but in aquatic organisms an alternative uptake route is available from the water. The levels of Zinc, Iron and Manganese accumulation in marine fish, shrimp and water were investigated in this study to cover the two major seasons in Nigeria. Water and samples of fish and shrimps were pooled weekly for five weeks between November and December 2007 during the dry season and repeated in April 2008 during the rainy season and analyzed using standard methods. The results obtained showed that the levels of bioconcentration of Zinc, Iron and Manganese in shrimp and fish were significantly higher than the levels of accumulation in water. The result also revealed temporal differences, with higher bioconcentration values observed during the rainy season. The highest bioconcentration of trace metal detected was Zinc, in fried fish (15.7 mg/l) and fried shrimp (11.1 mg/l). However, the value of Zinc is lower than the FAO recommended limits (30 mg/kg), although its relatively high level suggests a high bio-availability of the heavy metals in the studied water body.

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Bioinformatic approach: Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase of Dinoccus radiodurans
Author(s)- Ashokan. K. V, Koshti.V.V

ABSTRACT

Bioinformatic Analysis of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase protein of Dinococcus radiodurans strain R1 was performed. The protein’s net positive charge is due to arginine and lysine and is alkaline with Ip >7 (9.8) and hydrophobicity is 53.5%. Proscan server identified five functional sites on it like Myristylation site, three phosphorylation sites and an N-glycosylation site. The secondary structure showed β- turns predominant along with disulphide bonds and is confirmed   by SOPMA. A further study showed that in contain  three domains as Cu, Zn SOD binding, six bladed propeller, TOIB like and SMP-30/Gluconolaconase/LRE like. The sequence of the domains was analyzed for various parameters like extinction coefficient, half life, instability index, aliphatic index and grand average hydropathy (GRAVY).The sequence was then used to generate tertiary structure which suggest that the Cu, Zn SOD binding site belongs to oxidoreductase fold and metal binding family, the TOIB like site designated as peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein and SMP-30 domain assigned as hydrolyzing enzyme. The 3D- structures were evaluated by Rampage, ProQ and Combinatorial Extension (CE) and visualized by Rasmol.   

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Role of Soil Physical Properties in Ecological Succession of Restored Mine Land – A Case Study
Author(s)- Shikha Uniyal Gairola, Prafulla Soni

ABSTRACT

Minerals are the gift of nature which occurs either in thick forest areas or adjacent to it. During the course of mining, vegetation/forest gets destroyed and gets replaced by huge quantities of overburden dumps. Restoration of these dumps becomes necessary so that the land may come back to its original topography. Soil has the significant role in restoration process. Present paper focuses on how the physical characteristics of soil affect the restoration intervention in a derelict mined land. The study was carried out with an objective of evaluating the role of soil physical properties in ecological succession of an age series of 23, 22, 21 and 20 years old restored mine sites in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Adjoining natural forest was also studied for comparison of some selected soil physical properties (texture, porosity, electrical conductivity, bulk density). Data of the present investigation reveals that as the physical properties of soil improve with age of bio-restoration, the successional processes also advance culminating into successful restoration of mine derelict sites. The results of the present study will be helpful in further understanding the successional processes and how soil properties play significant role in successional processes.  

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Morphometric Analysis – A Tool to Identify the Different Variants in a Fish Species E.Maculatus
Author(s)- Manimegalai M et al.,

ABSTRACT

Etroplus maculatus, a fresh water cichlid fish popularly known as orange chromid, commonly found in rivers, streams and canals of India. E.maculatus was collected from Kollidam a branch of Cauvery river of Trichy (Dt), Tamil Nadu. Depending upon the number of black spots, their arrangements and other characters, ten different variants had been identified. Morphometric analysis were made for all ten variants and compared. Among the 15 parameters noted, body weight and body length showed high level of significant positive relationship with total length when compared to all other parameters. This analysis will help to understand the morphometric of different variants which is the most easily perceivable means of assessing the evolutionary adaptation of a species to its environment. Close monitoring is needed to determine its effects on the local environment. The different level of significance between body features of various variants reveals the possibility of segregation of variants of this species.

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Isolation, Screening and In Vitro Mutational Assessment of Indigenous Soil Bacteria for Enhanced Capability in Petroleum Degradation
Author(s)- Naveenkumar.S et al.,

ABSTRACT

A total of 25 bacterial isolates from petroleum contaminated soil in various niches were screened for degradative ability. Out of which three strains showed increased activities. Standard morphological and biochemical analysis identified up to generic level show that they belong to Micrococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp and Pseudomonas sp. The isolated strains were enriched and assessed for degrading activity after UV mutagenesis. Optimization parameters were standardized in various temperature, pH, Nitrogen source and Carbon source. Prominent degradation was found for Micrococcus sp and Staphylococcus sp at 370C, pH – 7.0, Carbon source as Petrol – 15uL and Nitrogen source as Calcium nitrate tetra hydrate, whereas Pseudomonas sp showed a significant elevation in activity compared to Micrococcus and Staphylococcus sp. The parameters optimized for Pseudomonas sp depict that they are viable at 430C, pH – 8.0, Carbon source as Petrol – 15uL and Peptone as Nitrogen source. Optimization and mutagenesis show that UV mutant Pseudomonas sp showed prominent activity and most promising in the field of petroleum degradation. The study is novel as we propose that UV mutagenesis inducts an increased activity in indigenous bacteria possessing petroleum degradative activity.

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Impact of industrial development on surface water resources in Angul region of Orissa
Author(s)- Rizwan Reza, Gurdeep Singh

ABSTRACT

The impact of various industrial developments on water resources may be in the range of minimal to severe. An intensive investigation was conducted in highly industrialized area of Angul to determine the water quality status. The industries such as coal mines of MCL, Aluminium Plant of NALCO and its CPP, Super Talcher Thermal Power Plant and Talcher Power Plant of NTPC etc. are situated along with the river stretches. The Brahmani river and their tributaries are the main source of the water for various industries activities within study areas. But at same time the industrial effluents, mine drainage water, untreated sewage from urban settlements, run-off from agricultural field, mining areas and open defecation on the river banks have been contributing the pollution load on the river water. The deterioration of river water quality may give adverse effect on human health and aquatic ecosystem directly or indirectly. This paper attempt to be focused on the overall status of river water resources and their management strategies.

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Wetland Macrophytes as toxic metal accumulators
Author(s)- Ghosh.S

ABSTRACT

Wetland, the natural habitat of many macrophytic plants, is engaged in cleaning up of different water-soluble pollutants involving its macrophytes. In this work two less investigated macrophytes like Hydrilla verticillata and Ipomoea aquatica  were selected to test their scavenging capacity for toxic metals such as cadmium, lead and metalloid like arsenic. From the accumulation capacity of Hydrilla verticillata it appeared that this plant has strong appetite for arsenic and cadmium but its appetite for lead is not so strong. It was observed that Ipomoea aquatica might be considered as the efficient accumulator of cadmium, moderately effective accumulator of lead, but not so efficient in accumulation of arsenic.  From this work it may be claimed that the macrophytes tested here are largely involved in purifying the water contaminated with toxic metals and metalloids and this work may be considered as  an effort to appeal to promote the conservation of the wetlands those play a key role in recycling process depolluting the ecosystem.

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Implications of physical parameters and trace elements in surface water off Pondicherry, Bay of Bengal, South East Coast of India
Author(s)- Solai A, Suresh Gandhi M, Sriram E

ABSTRACT

The heavy metals generally, enter the aquatic environment through atmospheric deposition, erosion of geological matrix or due to anthropogenic activities caused by industrial effluents, domestic sewage and mining wastes. The main objectives of this paper is to understand the processes controlling major and trace elements in the surface water and to identify natural and anthropogenic sources in the coastal environment using distribution of elemental concentrations to establish regional baseline levels. Totally, 25 samples were collected from offshore Pondicherry and Veerampattnam upto 12 mts depth.Metal enrichments observed close to the major urban areas in the Pondicherry coast are associated with the industrialized activities areas rich in Zn and Pb in the coastal sediments.The higher concentration is observed in the Pondicherry region than the Veerampatnam.

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Detecting and understanding drivers of natural and eco-environmental vulnerability due to hydro geophysical parameters, ecosystem and land use change through multispectral satellite data sets in Apodi estuarine, Northeast Brazil
Author(s)- Mukesh Singh Boori, Venerando Eustáquio Amaro

ABSTRACT

The Apodi estuarine located in the north coast of Rio Grande do Norte State; it is a typical and key valley region with apparent upland ecosystem vulnerability and sensitivity. In order to analyze natural and eco-environmental vulnerability, remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) technologies are adopted and an environmental numerical model is developed using DIP techniques. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of natural and eco-environmental vulnerability; it´s causes basically show the intensity, its distribution and human-environment effect on the ecosystem in the Apodi estuarine, so that a strategy of sustainable land use could be established. The model contains some basic factors like geology, geomorphology, soil, vegetation and land use/cover. According to the numerical results, the vulnerability is classified into six levels, unrated/potential, very low, low, medium, high, and very high levels, by means of the cluster principle. Vulnerability maps have the aim to show the intensity, and its distribution in the study area, of the susceptibility of the environment.  The results show that the natural vulnerability in the study area was at medium and high level, and eco-environmental vulnerability is quite more sensitive in maximum part of the study area. However, the ecosystem quality had become worse over the thirty years in some regions. In the study area, population growth, encroachment, industrialization, vegetation degradation, and governmental policies for eco-environmental protection were found to be the major factors that caused the environmental changes over the thirty years.

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A report on Fluoride distribution in drinking Water
Author(s)- Veeraputhiran.V, Alagumuthu.G

ABSTRACT

High fluoride groundwater leads a health threat to millions of people around the world. This paper analyzes the most extensive database on fluoride and other chemical constituent distribution in arid tract of Ottapidaram block, Tamilnadu, India where it is the only source of drinking water. The study was conducted in the summer season (May – June, 2010). The water samples of 61 village panchayats were tested; 81.97% had injurious fluoride level above than 1.5 mg/L. The fluoride concentration in drinking waters varied from 0.936 to 4.34 mg/L in the study area. Due to the high concentration of fluoride, dental fluorosis was also identified. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameter. In addition, Fluoride concentration was not correlated with other physicochemical parameters significantly in ground water. Overall water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes without any prior treatment except at eleven locations out of 61.

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Study on Proteolytic Treatment of Textile Fabric Softness and Smoothening using Halophilic Bacterial Biopolymers
Author(s)- Ganesan.S, Manoharan.N, Naveenkumar.S, Velsamy.G, Manivannan.S.P

ABSTRACT

In this study, we have carried out the course of study on proteolytic treatment of fabric surface cotton based on Halophilic bacterial biopolymers. The halophilic bacteria Vibrio harveyi, Halomonas sp, Vibrio fluvialis, and Halobacterium sp., strains were isolated from soil samples collected from Pichavaram Mangrove forest, India. The crude extract of the biopolymers were separated from the cell free supernatant using the 95% cold ethanol and dialyzed. This biopolymer were studied soluble in water and insoluble in any organic solvents tested; gelation occurred under alkaline conditions in the presence of divalent cations in which as CuSo4 gave the best result, including stabilizing effects on oil-water emulsions with a variety of vegetable oils as well as flocculating effects against activated carbon powder after 5min and the highest flocculating activity was observed in biopolymer no-2. However, biopolymer no-1, 3 and 4 showed poor flocculating effects. Moreover, the proteins were isolated by protein electrophoresis and Laemmli assay. The biopolymers were applied to the textile fabric after dye bath. Biopolymer no.2 and 3 had good proteolytic activity and gave smoothness to the applied fabric. Biopolymer no. 1 and 4 gave not so much smoothness than the biopolymer no. 2 and 3.

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Study on some morphological and physical Characteristics of sweet lemon used in mass models
Author(s)- Amin Taheri-Garavand, Amin nassiri

ABSTRACT

Mass grading of vegetables and fruits provide useful insight into designing of sizing machine and reducing the packaging and transportation costs. In this research, sweet lemon mass was correlated to different physical attributes using linear and nonlinear models as three different classifications: (1) single or multiple variable regressions of sweet lemon dimensional characteristics, (2) single or multiple variable regression of sweet lemon projected areas and (3) estimating sweet lemon mass based on its volume. The results showed that mass modeling of sweet lemon based on intermediate diameter and first projected areas are the most appropriate ones in the first and the second classifications, respectively. In third classification, the best model was obtained on the basis of the ellipsoid volume as M = 0.903 Vellip + 15.236   with R2 = 0.886, whereas corresponding values were 0.86 and 0.299 for assumed sweet lemon shapes (oblate spheroid and actual), respectively. In economical and agronomical point of view, suitable grading system of sweet lemon mass was ascertained based on intermediate diameter as nonlinear relation: M = -0.002 b2 + 6.0386 b -239.58, R2 = 0.8566 and R.S.E. = 11.898.

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Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indian Cities- A review
Author(s)- Bundela P.S. et al.,

ABSTRACT

Agricultural application of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), as nutrient source for plants and as soil conditioner, is the most cost-effective option of MSW management because of its advantages over traditional means such as landfilling or incineration. However, agricultural application of MSW can lead to a potential environmental threat due to the presence of pathogens and toxic pollutants. Composting is an attractive alternative of MSW recycling. Application of MSW compost (MSWC) in agricultural soils can directly alter soil physicochemical properties as well as promote plant growth. The soil microbial biomass, considered as the living part of soil organic matter, is very closely related to the soil organic matter content in many arable agricultural soils. Numerous studies, with different MSWC amendment doses on different soil types and under different water regimes revealed no detrimental effect on soil microbial biomass. In this review, we show the state of art about the effects of MSWC amendment on soil microbial biomass.

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Evaluation of bioremediation effectiveness on sediments Contaminated with industrial wastes
Author(s)- Aparna.C et al.,

ABSTRACT

A treatability study was conducted to determine the most effective bioremediation strategies for the decontamination of sediments dredged from industrially polluted Gandigudem Lake. Microcosm experiments were performed with the addition of a microbial consortium and nutrients. The performance of each treatment was examined by monitoring biological parameters such as basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), metabolic quotient (qCO2), Cmic/TOC ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and phytotoxicity. Results of the study suggest that the addition of nutrients to the contaminated sediments accelerated bioremediation and the application of an enriched native microbial consortium in concentration greater than the indigenous microbial population further increased the bioremediation efficiency. The study also demonstrated the effectiveness of combining bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of bioremediation effectiveness and assessment of the de-contaminated/ stabilized sediments.

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Groundwater quality assessment based on entropy weighted osculating value method
Author(s)- LI Peiyue, WU Jianhua, QIAN Hui

ABSTRACT

In view of provide scientific basis for groundwater resources protection and rational utilization, osculating value method was used to perform groundwater quality assessment in No. 2 water source site of Dawukou District and information entropy was used to determine the weight of each assessment parameter. The steps for water quality assessment with entropy weighted osculating value method were depicted in detail. The single index assessment showed that NH4+, F- and Mn in some of the groundwater samples are beyond the permissible limits slightly, but the comprehensive assessment showed that groundwater quality in the study area was basically fit for drinking and the most influencing indices affecting the groundwater quality were Tfe, pH and NH4+. Special attention should be paid to these indices to prevent groundwater pollution. The entropy weighted osculating value method was proved an easy and effective method for groundwater quality assessment.

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Anaerobic treatment of sugar industry wastewater by Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket Reactor at ambient temperature
Author(s)- Hampannavar, U.S, Shivayogimath C.B

ABSTRACT

Sugar industry wastewater was treated in a UASB reactor seeded with non-granular anaerobicallly digested sewage sludge. The ambient room temperature during the study period was between 29-37oC. Successful reactor start-up with granulation was achieved within 95 days of operation.  The reactor was started with an OLR of 0.5 g COD/L. d. and was loaded up to 16 g COD/L. d. During start-up the HRT was reduced from 48-8 h. The optimum HRT was found as 6 h. After the start-up the loading was increased at constant HRT of 6 h by increasing the COD concentration of the feed. A maximum COD removal efficiency of 89.4% was achieved. The COD removal rate linearly increased with increase in OLR. The ratio of VFA to alkalinity was varied between 0.19-0.33 during the treatment. Maximum volumetric biogas production was 4.66 L/L. d. at OLR of 16 g COD/L. d. The methane content in the biogas was found to be between 73 and 82% at steady state conditions. After reaching an OLR of 16 g COD/l. d. the loading was increased by reducing HRT to 4 h. Reactor performance deteriorated when loading increased to 24 g COD/L. d. It was concluded that sugar industry wastewater can be treated at maximum loading of 16 g COD/L. d. at low HRT of 6 at ambient temperature.

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Impact of moisture level in atmosphere on Biomass Gasification: A   Bioenergy for Sustainable Development
Author(s)- Pankaj Mishra, Prafull Singh, Prashant Baredar

ABSTRACT

The world is facing severe problem – energy crisis, environmental problem, this makes peoples to focus their courtesy on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass technology is a right option in this regards   because of its renewable, abundant, environment friendly nature. Gasification systems require high temperatures and an oxygen-starved environment to convert biomass which is usually wet organic domestic waste, organic industrial wastes, manure, sludge etc., into a gas (a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane). This gas fuels a gas turbine, which runs an electric generator. Changes in wood moisture are well tolerated by the process. During the testing program, as feedstock moisture levels were changed from level to another, the Gasifier and combustor reactors responded within minutes to the changes. When large changes in moisture content were made rapidly (20 to 30% by volume), Gasifier and combustor temperatures change more significantly so that a final steady state temperature, at each condition, were slightly delayed (about 1 to 2 hours depending on the magnitude of the moisture change) due to response of the system refractory. Even though the final steady state condition required some time to be reached, the gas production rate adjusted within minutes to within +/- 5% of the final equilibrium value.

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Municipal Solid Waste Stabilisation by Leachate Recirculation: A Case study of Ambala City 
Author(s)- Chadetrik Rout, Arabinda Sharmar

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of leachate recirculation on stabilisation of municipal solid wastes. The study was carried out by using two lab- scale landfill bioreactors containing approximately 10 kg of waste each, in order to follow waste degradation over 16 weeks of time period. The main difference between anaerobic recirculated and without recirculation bioreactors options is determined in leachate quality. Leachate quality is regularly measured by the means of pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, total kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand (COD). It has been observed that leachate recirculation is more effective on anaerobic degradation of solid waste than non-recirculated degradation. The leachate recirculated bioreactor appears to be the more effective option in the removal of COD by 89.93% and stabilisation of pH at 7.5. After 16 weeks of anaerobic degradation, waste stabilization seemed to have reached for the recirculated bioreactor. Therefore, further studies required to determine the optimum operational conditions for leachate recirculation rates, also with the operational costs of recirculation for solid waste stabilisation.

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Experimental studies on effect of Heavy Metals presence in Industrial Wastewater on Biological Treatment
Author(s)- Majid Sa’idi

ABSTRACT

Biological Wastewater Treatment is one of the most important parts of wastewater treatment and microorganism has importance role in biological treatment. Microorganisms effect in metabolism of various organic compounds and other elements. Such microbiological parameters as the number, weight and activity of microorganisms can be good indicators of wastewater contamination with heavy metals. Heavy metals are known as harmful pollutants in Wastewater having a negative effect on Biological Wastewater Treatment plant including microorganisms. Some heavy metals, e.g. lead, even at low levels are toxic for microorganisms. As a rule, heavy metal has a negative effect on the growth of water microorganisms as it can greatly depress their numbers.  On one hand, the number of microorganisms depends on the total content and concentrations of particular forms of heavy metals. On the other hand, it is conditioned by several other factors, quantity and quality of organic matter, especially carbohydrate rich organic matter, pH, total exchange capacity, nutrient availability, moisture, temperature and oxygen availability. Heavy metals shift the structure of microbial populations, impoverish their diversity, and affect species composition, reproduction and activity of indigenous microorganisms. Contamination of wastewater with high rates of heavy metals caused a significant decrease in the numbers of bacteria in biological system. It is obvious that heavy metals are very danger contaminant in wastewater and disorder of biological wastewater treatment is as a result of this pollution.

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A study on the Bulk density and its effect on the growth of selected grasses in coal mine overburden dumps, Jharkhand, India
Author(s)- Arvind Kumar Rai, Biswajit Paul, Gurdeep Singh

ABSTRACT

Coal is the prime source of energy in India. Opencast mining of coal damage a large land surface area, displace people from their natural home and cause agricultural losses. This raises a number of environmental challenges, including soil erosion, dust, noise, and water pollution impacts on local biodiversity. Generation of dump waste from opencast mines in Jharia coalfield threatens the social sustainability of land use pattern in many ways. The overburden dumps formed outside the open pits besides occupying the lands alter the surface topography and contribute to the environmental degradation. In the present paper authors have attempted to study the impact of physical properties of soil and his effect on the growth of some selected grasses over mine dumps. Bulk density plays a significant role in growth of selected grasses as observed during this experiment.

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Effects of Eutrophication on benthic life within the littoral zone of freshwater lakes
Author(s)-Tessitore, U.S

ABSTRACT

Lakes are mainly divided into three trophic levels, oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic. A study performed over a three month period during the summer of 2010 recorded the amounts of cladocera, copepods, and rotifers present at three lakes each with a different trophic status. The theory is that a lake with greater nutrient levels, such as a eutrophic lake, will contain higher numbers of zooplankton than a lake with lower nutrient levels, such as an oligotrophic lake The research did not show any significant difference in the abundance of these three microorganisms within the different lakes based on their trophic status.

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