Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 6 - 2011

CONTENTS

Seasonal Variations In Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Water In Coconut Husk Retting Area, Parakkani, Tamil Nadu
Author(s)- Mary Helen.P.A, Jayasree.S, Antony Johnson.J, Belsha Jaya Edith.I.H, Chittarasu

ABSTRACT

This study focused upon the Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters in water samples from coconut husk retting area in Parakkani river near Thengapattanam. The purpose was to assess the quality of water from the sources in three different seasons. Water samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, No3-, No2-, So42-, Po42-, F- and Cl-. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.72 – 7.71, electrical conductivity 852 – 5787micS/cm, Po42-, 1.77 – 2.8mg/L; F-, 0.2 – 0.4mg/L; No3-, 3 – 12mg/L; No2-, 0.05 – 1.51mg/L; So42-, 21 – 120mg/L; Fe, 1.53 – 3.76mg/L; Mn, 0.33 – 0.67mg/L.The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the water sample from coconut husk retting area in Parakkani river were exceeded the permissible limit of  WHO and CPHEEO water quality guidelines.

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Monitoring and analysis of indoor air quality at different heights in industrial room by using CFD
Author(s)- Manoj Arya, Rajput.S.P.S

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to maintain indoor air quality in industrial buildings as per requirement. In hot and humid climates in industries, indoor humidity levels are usually high and this is a matter of concern from thermal comfort and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) perspectives. In industrial climates, occupants seal even the smallest air gaps and eliminate outside fresh air circulating inside the buildings. So it is essential to manage dust and airflow inside the building. In whole analysis, for maintaining indoor air quality measurements like Stack monitoring (measuring the suspended particulates in stack), Ambient air monitoring (measuring the suspended particulates in atmosphere) and numerical simulation by using CFD air flow analysis, are incorporated. The effect of the air supply and flow analysis has been done in the industrial turbine room at the Vikram Cement, Neemuch (M.P.) Environmental conditions, local thermal boundary conditions and climate data are collected from the site. Investigation of natural ventilation criteria affected by various factors in the industrial building for finding the flow rate and velocity in the building for comfort of workers and staff.

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Optimum utilisation of Water Of Mudasarlova Reservoir (1902) – The first Impounding Reservoir for Water Supply for Visakhapatnam City, AP, India- A Case Study
Author(s)- Chandraiah.V, Malleswara Rao.P, Mahamood.V

ABSTRACT

The reservoirs in the urban area are useful for storage of drinking water to the city.  The Mudasarlova Reservoir in the Visakhapatnam city limits is situated between the Kailasakonda, Kambalakonda and Simhachalam Hills. Some residential colonies are developed in the catchment area of the reservoir .  Due to sewage effluents the quality of the water in the reservoir will be spoiled.  In order to propose for proper utilization of the reservoir water, the yield of the reservoir based on the previous 54 years rainfall data is computed.  The present storage capacity of the reservoir is computed  after conducting hydrographic survey using Eco- sounder and the need for further deepening of the reservoir is suggested.  The maximum flood discharge in to the reservoir is also computed and compared with the discharge capacity of the spillway and it is suggested   that the spillway length shall be increased from existing 40.0m to 51.0m.  It is also suggested to propose 0.50 MGD(2.25 MLD) water treatment plant for supplying  the reservoir water to the surrounding area.  The curtain grouting along the dam is also suggested to control seepage through the bed of the reservoir.

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Review on Bioremediation of Polluted Environment: A Management Tool
Author(s)- Kumar.A, Bisht.B.S, Joshi.V.D, Dhewa.T

ABSTRACT

The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Bioremediation is the most effective management tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. Bioremediation is an attractive and successful cleaning technique for polluted environment. Bioremediation has been used at a number of sites worldwide, including Europe, with varying degrees of success. Bioremediation, both in situ and ex situ have also enjoyed strong scientific growth, in part due to the increased use of natural attenuation, since most natural attenuation is due to biodegradation. Bioremediation and natural attenuation are also seen as a solution for emerging contaminant problems, e.g. endocrine disrupters, landfill stabilization, mixed waste biotreatment and biological carbon sequestration. Microbes are very helpful to remediate the contaminated environment. Number of microbes including aerobes, anaerobes and fungi are involved in bioremediation process.

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Study on Energy use Pattern and Efficiency of Corn Silage in Iran by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Technique
Author(s)- Pishgar Komleh .S.H., Omid. M, Keyhani.A

ABSTRACT

Energy ratio and technical efficiency are the ways to explain the efficiency of farmers. This study was conducted to determine the energy use efficiency for corn silage production in Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from farmers by using a face to face questionnaire. Energy indices, technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies were calculated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique for three groups of farms (<5ha, between 5 and 10ha and >10ha). The results revealed that the highest energy ratio (2.8) and least specific energy (2.9MJkg-1) belonged to large farms. Total energy input and output were calculated as 68928 and 148380MJha-1, respectively, whereas machinery with a share of 42% was the highest consumer followed. The average value of TE, PTE and SE was 0.92, 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. It was specified that medium and large farms scored highest TE and SE. The contribution of saving energy for machinery was the highest and followed by chemical fertilizer and diesel fuel with shares of39.41%, 28.48% and 16.43% respectively. The total energy savings calculated to be 40% of total input energy. The Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) revealed that 81% and 79%of farmers were efficient under CCR and BCC.

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Influence of Meteorology on Ambient Air Quality in Morogoro, Tanzania
Author(s)- Stelyus L. Mkoma, Ibrahimu C. Mjemah

ABSTRACT

The influence of meteorological parameters on air quality was investigated for a rural background site in Morogoro. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were measured during wet and dry seasons of 2005 and 2006 period and their relationship with reported mass of particles of aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) for the site was assessed. The results show that higher PM10 mass concentrations (45µg/m3) were obtained during the 2005 dry season and the lowest (13 µg/m3) during the 2006 wet season. It is interpreted that reasons for the higher levels of the particulate matter mass in the dry season are due to temperature inversions and absence of rain wash-down. The observed particulate matter levels are also affected by the variations in sources strengths and in meteorological conditions such as mixing height, precipitation, relative humidity, wind speed and direction as supported by air mass trajectories.

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Kinetics of adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solutions using different natural materials
Author(s)- Satish Patil et al.,

ABSTRACT

Adsorption studies of Crystal Violet (CV) on different natural materials were carried out by batch experiments. The parameter studied includes initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, contact time, agitation speed, particle size of adsorbent and temperature. The linear regression coefficient R2 was used to elucidate the best fitting isotherm model. All isotherm models, Langmuir (R2 = 0.982 to 0.999), Temkin (R2 = 0.973 to 0.998) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.98 to 0.998 and n = 1.886 to 2.294) were found to be best fitting models.  The monolayer (maximum) adsorption capacities (qm) were found to be between 142.857 to 250 mg/g for natural adsorbents under study. Lagergen pseudo -second order model best fits the kinetics of adsorption. The correlation coefficient R2 for second order adsorption model has very high values of R2 for all absorbents (R2 ≈ 0.998) and qe(the) values are in good agreement with with qe(exp) showed that adsorption of CV on these natural materials follwed  second order kinetics and chemosorption playing role in rate determining step. Intra particle diffusion plot showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates greater contribution of surface sorption in rate determining step. pH was found to be an  important factor in controlling the adsorption of cationic dye. Adsorption of CV on adsorbents was found to increase on increasing pH, increasing temperature and decreasing particle size. Thermodynamic analysis showed that adsorption was favourable and spontaneous, endothermic physical adsorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of CV with biosorbents. Mangrove plant leaf powder was found have excellent adsorption capacity towards CV than other natural materials under study.

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Diversity and function of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria associated with wheat Rhizosphere in North Himalayan Region
Author(s)- Joshi, P, Bhatt, A.B

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the composition of bacterial diversity associated with plant roots. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of bacteria associated with the root of wheat.  Present study revels, the diversity of bacterial isolates from soils under wheat cultivation in district Uttarkashi. Phenotypic and physiological characteristics of the isolates were record to categorize and identify the bacteria. In all 133 different bacteria isolates were recovered from four different locations of which two were rainfed and two were irrigated. The spread plate technique on nutrient agar was use to isolates and purifies all the strains. The characteristics of the bacterial strains were determined using the colony morphology, gram staining as well as biochemical properties. On the basis of biochemical characterization 44 % were Bacillus sp. and 24% belong to Pseudomonas sp. Genera identified in the rhizosphere isolates were also found in the rhizoplane isolates. Shannon Winner index of microbial diversity was 1.752 in irrigated crop and 1.594 in rain fed crop but there were no significant differences.

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Energy use and cost analysis of watermelon production under different farming technologies in Iran
Author(s)- Majid Namdari

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to estimate the amount of input and output energy per unit area and to make an economic analysis of watermelon production in Hamadan province, Iran. A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 85 watermelon producers. The area investigated was divided into two groups. Group I was consisted of 54 farmers (owner of machinery and high level of farming technology) and Group II of 31 farmers (non-owner of machinery and low level of farming technology). The energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain, also direct, indirect, renewable and non-renewable energies were calculated for both groups. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 67674.24 MJ ha-1 for Group I and 68788.37 MJ ha-1 for Group II. Only 21.03% and 19.94% of the total energy inputs used in watermelon production was renewable in Group I and Group II respectively. Results showed energy ratio of watermelon production in Group I and Group II was 1.26 and 1.13, respectively. Cost analysis expressed that benefit–cost ratio in the surveyed groups were 2.61 and 2.06, respectively. Results revealed Group I has a better condition than Group II.

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Performance analysis of plunging jets having different geometries
Author(s)- Shakti Singh, Surinder Deswal, Mahesh Pal

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous works reporting the oxygen transfer by circular plunging jets, few studies have been carried out on plunging jets of different geometries, namely circular, square, rectangular and rectangular with rounded edge. The experimental study on these four geometries has revealed that jet geometry/shape has significant effect on the penetration depth and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of plunging jets. It has been observed that conventional circular plunging jets have highest penetration depth, but the overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of rectangular with rounded edge plunging jets has been significantly higher (1.45 times) than circular plunging jet for same flow area and other similar conditions. This is due to the optimal and balanced utilization of incipient kinetic jet power by rectangular with rounded edge geometry, and hence suggests their distinct advantage over other geometries. Empirical relationships have also been proposed to estimate the penetration depth and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient from kinetic jet power for different geometries of plunging jets. The suggested empirical relationships can be useful in deciding the depth of aeration tank, determining the optimum geometry/configuration and comparing the performance or oxygen mass transfer rates of different geometries and configurations of plunging jets under similar flow conditions.

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Decolourisation of textile dyeing Wastewater by modified solar Photo-Fenton Oxidation
Author(s)- Ganesan.R, Thanasekaran.K

ABSTRACT

In a laboratory study, decolourisation of real textile dyeing wastewater by modified solar photo-Fenton (Steel scrap/ H2O2 ) process under irradiation with sunlight was examined. Batch experiments were conducted to determine optimal operating conditions .The optimal doses of H2O2 and steel scrap were 15 mL/L and 1 g/L, respectively at pH 3.Colour removal of 89% was obtained under optimum conditions. These results suggest that, the modified solar photo-Fenton process proved to be efficient for decolourisation of the real textile dyeing wastewater. A simplified mechanism of hydroxyl radical production in the presence of steel scrap as a catalyst has been proposed. The morphologic analysis and mapping of the elementary composition of Steel scrap used as a catalyst was determined by scanning electronic microscopy.

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Contamination of heavy metals in seafood marketed from Vile Parle and Dadar markets of suburban areas of Mumbai (west coast of) India
Author(s)- Zodape.G.V , Dhawan.V.L, Wagh.R.R., Sawant.A.S

ABSTRACT

Seafood is the major source of food of large number of people residing in the coastal area of Maharashtra. Fish samples namely Megalaspis cordyla, Sepia aculeate, Arius dussumieri, Cynoglossus macrolepidotus, Coilia dussumieri (Vile Parle) and Lepturacanthus lepturus, Escuolosa thoracata, Parastromateus niger, Arius dussumieri, and  Ilisha filigera  (Dadar)were collected directly from the two suburban markets ( Vile Parle and Dadar) of Mumbai coast.  These fish samples were dried in the laboratory and, the dried fishes were crushed into a fine powder by mortal and pestle and stored in amber colored bottles in vacuum desiccators. These samples were evaluated by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of the six heavy metals namely Zinc, Manganese, and Iron, Lead, Cadmium and Mercury. It is reported in the literature that the level of Zn in fishes is generally above the tolerable limits. In our present study, we found that the level of Zn in fishes from Vile Parle and Dadar market was also above the tolerable limits. Our data for Mn revels is comparable with the similar data reported in the literature. Iron was the dominant metal measured during this study. From our study it was found that the concentration of Fe in different species of fishes collected from Vile Parle and Dadar markets was quite high as also reported in earlier literature. Thus the values of Fe in present suggest severe contamination in the seafood in recent years. The level of Pb, in our study is within tolerable limits. The concentrations of Cd, in marketed fishes in our study were far lower than the consumption safety tolerance in fishes set by countries elsewhere. According to the results obtained, the Hg, level in the samples of the fishes collected from the Vile Parle and Dadar markets were found below the tolerable limits than the permissible level.

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Distribution of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Selected Streams in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
Author(s)- Ladigbolu, I.A, Balogun, K.J

ABSTRACT

The concentration of Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr) and Colbalt (Co) were determined in the five major streams sediment of Ibadan city; Odo-ona (S-1),Ogunpa (S-2),Ogbere (S-3),Kudeti (S-4) and Gege (S-5) to investigate consequences of population growth, urbanization, agricultural activities and uncontrolled direct dumping of wastes and sewages into aquatic environment. The order of the concentration of most of these studied metals in all the streams sediments were found to be Gege>Ogunpa>Kudeti>Ogbere>Odo-ona. This is clear indication of effect of population growth, urbanization, agricultural activities, traffic congestion of Automobile and indiscriminate dumping of domestic waste and sewage into the aquatic environment.
The highest mean total concentration of all studied trace metals Zn (429.1μg/g), Cu(249.5μg/g), Ni(15.30μg/g), Cd(2.02μg/g), Pb(405.0μg/g), and Cr(67.4μg/g) were observed in  Gege stream sediment(S-5) while that of Co was observed in Ogunpa  stream sediment(S-2).There was no significant difference (p>0.01) in the distribution of  Zn, Cr and Co in all the streams studied but significant difference (p<0.01) were observed in the distribution of Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb in all the streams sediment studied. Heavy metal concentration for all studied sediments showed a high level of pollution in comparism to GESAMP, 1982, Solomon and Forstner, 1984 and Prater and Anderson, 1977

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A critical review on physiological changes associated with reference to salinity
Author(s)- Mane A. V,Deshpande T.V., Wagh V. B, Karadge B. A., Samant J. S.

ABSTRACT

Soil salinity is abiotic stress which adversely influences on growth, overall development and productivity of plants. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous morphological and cellular changes which function in a well coordinated way to alleviate toxicity and changes therefore. Adaptation of some species to elevated salt concentrations provides evidence for inherent potential existed in plants to survive under unfavorable conditions. It is well identified that tolerance and yield constancy are multifaceted genetic characters and are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a disastrous. Salt stress may occur immediately, slowly or continually which may again differ in dose as periodically or gradually become severe during any stage of the life cycle of the plants. Therefore research strategies have to be developed to make the plants adaptable to saline environment to face diverse conditions at any stage of growth. Plant growth and internal changes responds to salinity by a way of rapid osmotic phase which inhibits growth of leaves by hampering photosynthesis and another slower but distraous ionic phase that accelerates senescence of leaves. Plants may adapt to salinity with three different types as osmotic stress tolerance, Na+ or Cl- exclusion and by the way of tissue tolerance to sodium and chloride ions. Nowadays, plant physiology, cell biology and molecular genetics research are providing new insights into the plant response to salinity and to improve tolerance of plants relevant to food production and environmental sustainability. Further improvement in tolerance to salinity may be definitive to find out the genetic resources more easily with the understanding of physiological mechanisms concerned in controlling the responses to stress and also if the plants indicate salt tolerance at morphological or cellular level, selection becomes a suitable applied method. This will definitely give a hand in choosing the wonder plant species for the breeders and to overcome a challenging problem of salinity. Better management of soil resource with wise practices with the tolerant and adaptive varieties could be used successfully for raising crop productivity especially in the areas where salinity is consistent and with huge economic loss to the farmers. Therefore, an understanding of appropriate physiological mechanisms controlling stress tolerance so as to provide plant breeders with appropriate selection criteria is essential. The present review elucidates the biochemical changes and associated reasons of the parameters mainly growth, photosynthesis, polyphenols, nitrogen metanbolis, antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrates and minerals. 

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Atmospheric particulate matter concentration and annual variability in an urban area of NW Spain
Author(s)- Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) refers fine solid and liquid particles suspended in air, strongly dependent of anthropogenic air emissions in urban areas. High PM levels have been measured in several cities around the world. Several important industrial facilities exist in the urban area of A Coruña, NW of Spain. They emit important PM to the air. A network of air quality monitoring stations exists and it allowed knowing the hourly PM10 concentration in the air. PM10 is used to denote particles of diameter under 10 µm. Such data is used to know the seasonal and yearly content on PM10 in the air between 2005 and 2008 in the urban area. The data provided shows small variability in the air PM10 concentration among stations and seasonal periods. Slightly higher PM10 concentrations and variability can be observed during spring and summer due to climatic factors, above all in rural and industrial settings located in the outskirts of the city.

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Sustainable Water Supply Policy for Jaipur City
Author(s)- Jethoo A.S, Poonia M.P

ABSTRACT

In the last few years, the ground water level in Rajasthan is going down rapidly. Due to intense heat, the dams are drying up resulting in severe water crisis particularly in city like Jaipur where drinking water supply solely depends upon ground water and dams. Major dams like Ramgarh and Bisalpur from where Jaipur city is getting water, have hardly any water left. The population of capital city Jaipur is rising at an alarming rate resulting in huge demand of water. It is high time to review the policy of drinking water supply especially for Jaipur city. During present study, efforts have been made to motivate the residents for conserving the water by offering some lucrative incentives to them. The incentive given to users shall be linked with amount of water saved. Further, efforts have been made by conducting door to door survey to frame a policy for granting number of water connection per household.

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Groundwater Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Usage in Yinchuan Area, China
Author(s)- Li Peiyue, Wu Qian, Wu Jianhua

ABSTRACT

On the purpose of assessing the degree of ionic toxicity of groundwater sources as irrigation and drinking purposes, groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various elements of major cations and anions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42- CO32- and other minor ions Fe, NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, As, Gr6+, Cd, Hg, I-and F- as well as such important chemical parameters as Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), pH, COD and odor. The TDS, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percent(SSP) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) were used for irrigation suitability assessment. The results show that the groundwater in the study area is not entirely fit for direct drinking with respect to TDS, TH, Fe, F-, Cl- and SO42-. In some of the samples collected, the concentrations of these constituents exceed the permissible limits of the Standards for Drinking Water Quality of China. Based on TDS, 75% of water samples are suitable for drinking and 80% of samples are fit for drinking based on TH. Heavy metals such as As, Gr6+, Hg and Cd are well below the permissible limits. Based on TDS, SAR and RSC, all the samples are suitable for irrigation, whereas, based on SSP, S17 and S31 are unsuitable for irrigation. However, S17 and S31 can be still used for irrigation if they are mixed with other samples, and therefore all the samples are classified into suitable group for agricultural irrigation.

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Enzymatic Degradation of Azo Dyes – A Review
Author(s)- Joshni. T. Chacko, Kalidass Subramaniam

ABSTRACT

Synthetic organic colourants (e.g., azo dyes) are used commonly in different industries ranging from food, textile production, printing and pharmaceuticals. The majority of these dyes are recalcitrant, so that they can impart colour on various raw materials. Certain dyes, dye precursors and some aromatic amine metabolites produced through biotransformation of dye compounds have been shown to be carcinogenic. The release of dyes into the environment constitutes a small proportion of water pollution, and the coloured wastewaters represent a serious environmental problem and a public health concern. Colour removal, especially from textile wastewaters, has been a big challenge over the last few decades; until now there is no single and economically attractive treatment that can effectively decolorize textile mill effluent. This review narrates the different enzymatic mechanisms in the reduction of azo dyes.

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Congo Red (Azo dye) decolourization by local isolate VT-II inhabiting dye effluent exposed soil
Author(s)- Rajesh Sawhney, Arun Kumar

ABSTRACT

A variety of samples were collected to isolate Congo red decolourizing bacteria from Baddi (H.P). Total 7 strains were obtained with potential for Congo red decolourization.  On primary screening, VT-II, an aerobic gram positive bacillus (Bacillus sp.) was found to have maximum observable Azo dye decolourization activity.  The isolate on secondary screening exhibited 70% decolourization. However, under optimal conditions of pH (7.0) and temperature (400C), maximum decolourization percentage was 85%.  Further studies are in progress to explore the possibilities of evolving authentic and commercially viable strain to be used for bioremediation of azo dye containing effluents.

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Studies on bioremediation of Phenol by earthworm
Author(s)- Mohan Krishna.V et al.,

ABSTRACT

Three species of earthworms namely Eisenia foetida, Eudrillus eugenia and Anantapur species were procured from different institutions. They were tested for their tolerance to phenol and   bioremediation activity. The bioremediation assays were performed in soil with phenol dispersed in water. Different concentrations of phenol samples ranging from 20 to 100ppm were taken for experimentation. The remediation process of initial phenol concentration was investigated. The results indicated that Eisenia foetida and Eudrillus eugenia were the best tolerant species, while the Anantapur species was found to be least tolerant. As the initial concentration of phenol increased, there was an increase in the percentage of bioremediation with respect to Eisenia foetida.But with species Eudrillus eugenia and Anantapur species, the percentage of uptake of phenol at 24 hours decreased with increase in initial phenol concentration. This indicates that the species Eisenia foetida is most tolerant species since it is able to uptake 100ppm phenol completely with in 72hours.

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Acid mine discharge – Challenges met in a hydro power project
Author(s)- Pankaj Sharma et al.,

ABSTRACT

Energy is a critical factor in developing countries for economic growth, social development and human welfare. Among all the renewable sources of energy hydropower is the most potential source which is economical, non-polluting and eco-friendly. The efficiency of hydro power equipments in the long run depends on many factors like water and sediment quality. Erosive and corrosive wear of parts like turbine etc. is a complex phenomenon. The operation and maintenance of hydropower plants is a global problem. The problem becomes more acute if the hydro environment is acidic in nature. This wear and tear due to corrosion/erosion caused by acid mine discharge (AMD) from coal mines reduces the efficiency and the life of these equipments. This ultimately leads to severe economic loss. Various researchers have conducted model studies to access the effect of these factors. In the present technical communication efforts are made to address the scientific community regarding detrimental impact of AMD causing erosion/corrosion of critical hydro power equipments through detailed investigation carried out at Kopili Hydro Power Project, Assam/Meghalaya, India (KHEP). In addition authors have tried to find an indigenous viable, economical and eco-friendly remedy to the problem using locally available green algae, the Cladophora.

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Comparison of Atmospheric Dispersion in a Large Terrain of Kaiga Atomic Power Plant with Simple Terrain Assumption against actual Complex Terrain Modelling
Author(s)- Pavan K. Sharma, Gera B, Ghosh A. K

ABSTRACT

Pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere is an important area wherein different approaches are followed in development of good analytical model. The analysis based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes offer an opportunity of model development based on first principles of physics and hence such models have an edge over the existing models. The present paper is aimed at bringing out some of the distinct merits and demerits of the CFD based models. A brief account of the applications of such CFD codes reported in literature is also presented in the paper. The choice of codes and the features to be employed from within the code for a specific problem needs expertise in thermal-hydraulics and numerical techniques. Brief guidelines towards this objective are also covered in the paper. An illustration of use of CFD code for pollutant dispersion studies is also included in the paper which clearly brings out the success and advantage of CFD based approach for modelling complex terrain.

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Dynamics of Adsorption Isotherms for the treatment conductivity and hardness of effluent with Novel Isolated Microorganism
Author(s)- Jagdish Singh, Ramandeep Kaur, Himsheta

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms possess a capacity to accumulate organic and inorganic matter in their body, evoke the process of their enzymatic transformation and adsorb them on the cell surface. Detailed batch studies with the selected JR11 microbial biomass as a adsorbent, has been carried out to investigate the effect of pH, contact time on the adsorption isotherm for Hardness and Conductivity. Isolated bacterial strains JR11 posses the capacity to reduce Hardness and Conductivity of water about 80±2 % at pH 7 with contact time of 85 minutes. The adsorption kinetic study satisfied the model Langergren and Frendulich equilibrium constant.  Adsorption capacity was found to be 47.2 and 26 mg/g of adsorbent for Hardness and Conductivity respectively.

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Cadmium and Chromium removal by aquatic plant
Author(s)-  Satya Narain, Ojha.C.S.P, Mishra.S.K., Chaube.U.C, Sharma.P.K

ABSTRACT

Natural water bodies like ponds are used for the cultivation of aquatic plants, which are often  contaminated with organic and variety of toxic metals likes Cd, Fe, Cu, Cr, Mn and Pb, etc., generated by industrial as well as municipal effluents.  Generally, it seen that the concentration of metals Cr, Pb, Cd and Fe in water often exceeds than recommended permissible limits of WHO (1995). Thus, it is necessary to maintain the quality of these ponds within permissible limits. Phytoaccumulation is an alternative technique of heavy metals remediation. In this paper, using free floating plant (Water hyacinth) which was obtained from an aquatic system, the removal of heavy metal, such as Chromium and Cadmium were investigated. It has been observed that plants were able to remove Cr and Cd from the municipal contaminated water. The average removal efficiency for the plant species, i.e., water hyacinth was 80.26%, for Cr and 71.28%, for Cd. Average removal rates of Cr and Cd were 0.10µg/day and 0.12µg/day.

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Effect of Steel plant effluent on acid and alkaline phosphatases of gills, liver and gonads of Cyprinus carpio Linn.(1758)
Author(s)-  Chetna Bakde, Aditi Niyogi Poddar

ABSTRACT

Fishes are aquatic and poikilothermic animals. Hence, their existence and performance is dominated by the quality of their environment. Pollution of water bodies forces them to acclimatize to various factors thus imposing a considerable amount of stress on their lives. This ability to detect sudden changes in environment and monitoring short or long term changes in water quality makes the fish efficient biomarkers. The Bhilai Steel Plant is situated 30 kilometers (west) of Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh. Besides good quality steel, it also produces important by products, such as, Coal tar, Naphthalene and Benzol. Effluents generated are dumped into the two local rivers, the Kharoon and the Sheonath through various channels. Analysis of the physico-chemical constituents of the different effluents reveals the coke oven effluent to contain a high amount of phenol, besides the presence of other toxic substances and hence is not expected to be congenial for the existence of fish. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linn, 1758) were exposed to different concentrations (10,20,30%)of this effluent for a short term duration and changes in acid and alkaline phosphatases recorded in the three organs,viz.,gills,liver and gonads at  different time points (48,96 and 160 hours).The various concentrations of the  effluent were found to alter the acidic and alkaline phosphatase activity in the three organs. Hence, the results from present investigations may be useful in the assessment of environmental stress in the aquatic ecosystem.

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Analytical study of rain water for the determination of polluted or unpolluted zone
Author(s)-  Amrut G.Gaddamwar

ABSTRACT

Now a day’s pollution increases day by day due to industrialization, population explosion, deforestation, and vehicular exhaust & by using fossils fuels which contains nitrogen, Sulphur, carbon. Out of these three N2, S does not under goes complete combustion which evolved in to atmosphere so the concentration of oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur increases in atmosphere which cause pollution. Due to pollution climate changes, Global warming and Depletion of ozone takes place. Due to global warming if the temperature of earth increases by one degree then water level in the sea will increase by fifty centimeters which causes adverse effects on human beings. The countries like Netherland, Bangladesh, Maldives, shanghai in china, Mumbai and Goa in India will submerge under the sea water. Due to global warming the rate of evaporation of water from the seas, rivers, ponds will increases and this leads to untimely rains cyclones and hurricanes. Agriculture sector will be badly affected. Due to fast evaporation of surface water   there will be a shortage of water for agriculture purposes. A slight increase in the global temperature adversely affects the world food production. Due to acid rain toxic effect to fresh aquatic life, damage to plants leaves, change in rate of photosynthesis in the plants and it also extensive damage to historical structural building, the PH of the soil changes which affect its fertility therefore it is necessary to control pollution and to control the pollution it is necessary to know whether observation zone is polluted or not. In the present work Author proved weather observed zone is polluted or not by simple analysis of rain water by using PH-meter and conductivity meter TDS-Meter by the measurement of PH, Conductivity, TDS of rain water   we can predict weather studied zone is polluted or not.

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Adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions from metal solution using crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer
Author(s)-  Ramya R, Sankar P, Anbalagan S, Sudha P.N

ABSTRACT

A basic investigation on the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions from metal solution by crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was conducted in a batch adsorption system. Graft copolymers of crosslinked chitosan (CLCS) with acrylonitrile (AN) were prepared by free radical polymerization using initiator ceric ammonium nitrate as redox system. Graft copolymerization was confirmed by FTIR, X-ray, DSC and SEM measurements. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time were evaluated. A pH 5.0 was found to be an optimum pH for Cu(II) adsorption, meanwhile pH 5.5 was an optimum pH for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants for the adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) onto crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile (CLCS-g-AN). The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions onto crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer were 230.79 and 358.54 mg/g, respectively. Results showed that crosslinked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer is favourable adsorbents.

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Analysis of the West African rainfall using a Regional Climate Model
Author(s)-  Yoroba. F et al.,

ABSTRACT

The West African climate was simulated over the 1984-1992 period using a regional climate model (MAR). The simulated results were compared with the climate research unit (CRU) data at interannual, annual and seasonal scales over the Guinean, Sudanese and Sahelian zones which present different rainfall regimes. The rainfall patterns were correctly reproduced by the model and found to be in good agreement with the CRU climatology. In addition, the atmospheric dynamic which influences the West African rainfall was correctly simulated according to the European centre for medium-range weather forecast (ECMWF) reanalyses. As a result, the MAR could be a valuable tool for studying the impacts of the rainfall variability on the agricultural productions in the West African countries.

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A study on physico chemical properties of overburden dump materials from selected coal mining areas of Jharia coalfields, Jharkhand, India
Author(s)-  Arvind Kumar Rai, Biswajit Paul, Gurdeep Singh

ABSTRACT

Most of the coal production in India comes from open cast mines contributing over 81% of the total production. A large number of open cast mines of over 10 million tons per annum capacity are in operation. Mining activities particularly opencast mining in huge forest areas results into loss of biodiversity, loss of nutrient qualities and microbial activities of the soil system. Opencast mining releases huge amount of mining wastes to the upper part of the land surface as overburden dump materials. In this study, the site selected for the experiment was overburden dump at different mining areas under Jharia coalfields (JCF). The overburden (OB) samples were collected during the months of April, 2008. Physico chemical characteristics such as Bulk density, Grain size distribution, pH, Electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, Organic matter, Available nitrogen, and Available phosphorus were determined in the Soil Mechanics Lab, ISM, Dhanbad. The objective of the present investigation was to characterization of overburden materials for revegetation or plantation purposes on the top surface of the overburden dump materials. This base line data can be used for reclamation of degraded opencast mines in Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, Jharkhand.

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Molybdate Anion Recognition through a Cationic Crowned Ionopore Based Electrochemical Sensor: Detection of an Environmental Pollutant
Author(s)-  Sethi.B, Kumar.S, Singh.R, Gupta.V.K ,Singh.L.P

ABSTRACT

In the view of the complexities involved in the environmental cycling of hazardous metal species, attempts have been made to develop a poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) based sensor for detection of  MoO42- ions using positively charged diaza crown ether (18-crown-6). The influence of membrane compositions on the potentiometric response of the electrodes have been found to substantially improve the performance characteristics of the membrane. Optimum performance was observed with the membrane having I-PVC-TBAB-DBP in the ratio 1:33:1:65 (w/w). The sensor shows a linear potential response for MoO42- over a wide concentration range 2.5x10-5-1.0x10-1M with Nernstian compliance 31.2 mVdecade-1 of activity within pH range 5.8 to 10.9 and a fast response time of 30 s. The sensor has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 15% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol.  It works over a period of 45 days with good reproducibility. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of molybdate ions in corrosion inhibitor samples.

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Cost Effective Solution for Carcass Disposal in India
Author(s)- Ahuja S. M

ABSTRACT

To dispose of dead animals, specific sites (Hadda Rorri sites) have been earmarked in villages and towns in India. However, there is no organized system for the disposal of carcasses. In the absence of an organized and scientific system of disposal of dead animals, it has become a major environmental hazard. While the skin is removed for its market value, the flesh is allowed to putrefy without any control resulting in highly repellent stench permeating into surrounding atmosphere. The dead animal is flayed for its hide and the remaining part is left behind to putrefy in open. As no enclosure is provided, this attracts vultures and dogs polluting the environment and creating health hazards. A nauseating stinking smell is emanated from these sites which vitiates the whole ambience of the area and even erodes the economic value of the surrounding land.  These places are unguarded and stray dogs & predators consume the dead animals with every danger of spread of disease. Different technological options like rendering and composting have been studied and a cost effective environment friendly solution having a payback period of about 2.5 years have been arrived at.

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