Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 7 - 2011- Page No:2

CONTENTS

Groundwater quality and its suitability to agriculture – GIS based case study of Chhatna block, Bankura district, West Bengal, India
Author(s)- Nag.S.K, Poulomi Ghosh

ABSTRACT

Water pollution is a major challenge amongst all other types of pollution. A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water happens to stay or move and interact are responsible for this. The study has been made to find out the status of groundwater quality and its suitability in regards to irrigation purpose. A total number of 23 water samples from borewells have been collected for pre-monsoon 2009 and post-monsoon 2009 from Chhatna block, Bankura district, West Bengal, India. Water quality data used in the present study include Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Bi-carbonate (RSBC/RSC) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). From the results of analysis, it is revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that, ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation.

Read full text

Assessment of noise levels in the ambient air quality of a Chromite Mining complex - A case study
Author(s)- Kerketta S, Gartia R, Bagh S

ABSTRACT

Systematic monitoring of noise, a measurable quality of the ambient air, was performed during the summer of 2008 and the winter of 2009 between 07:00-22:00 hours in and around a chromite mining complex. A Student’s t-test revealed that the equivalent noise level (Leq) was not identical with respect to the test values at the different stations at a 1% level of significance. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) also revealed that Leq differed depending on the time of day and the types of locations at a 1% level of significance. The Post hoc analysis showed that the Leq had the greatest effect in the evening at the workshop, the automatic teller machine (ATM) and the hospital at a 1% level of significance. Similarly, the Leq at the airfield had the greatest effect in the afternoon at a 1% level of significance, attributed primarily to the heavy traffic density.

Read full text

Aerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater in a biological reactor
Author(s)- Mohammad Zakir Hossain Khan, Mostafa.M.G

ABSTRACT

This study was designed a wastewater treatment plant with an aim at minimizing and/or removing  of suspended solids, dissolved solids, nutrients, and toxic compounds, before it releases into a water body. A lab-scale batch type integrated aerobic biological treatment plant was constructed and operated for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment and its performance was evaluated. A cylindrical open tank was used as a reactor and passed air through the bottom of the tank. The maximum hydraulic retention time was 15 days. The treated water samples were collected every day and tested for its chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), pH, conductivity, and total dissolved solids (TDS) to evaluate the efficiency of the plant. About 75% removal of COD was achieved employing hydraulic residence times of 15 days. The analyses results of the treated wastewater reveal that the parameters pH, BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and color were found within the prescribed permissible limits indicating the efficiency of the plant. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for air injection to accelerate the biological treatment process, with greatest influence on COD removal from the wastewater.

Read full text

Evaluation of Spatial variability of soil quality in Wildlife Refugee of Karkhe in southwestern Iran
Author(s)- Shaieste Gholami,Hosseini , Jahangard Mohammadi , Ab. Salman Mahini

ABSTRACT

Soil properties are continuous variables whose values at any location can be expected to vary according to direction and distance of separation from neighboring samples. The spatial variability and variation of soil properties should be quantified for a better understanding of the influence of such factors as management and pollution, and finally for leading to more efficient management. Geostatistics provide descriptive tools such as variogram to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous soil attributes. This study addressed the spatial variability of soil properties at the regional scale using geostatistical method. The study was carried out in Wildlife Refugee of Karkhe in riparian forests of Karkhe river southwestern Iran. The soil was sampled in 2009 using 200 sampling point along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river). The distance between transects were 0.5 km. The sampling procedure was hierarchically, we considered maximum distance between samples as 0.5 km, but the samples were taken at 250m, 100m, 50m, 10m and 5m at different locations of sampling. At each transect point, three 50 cm×50 cm×25 cm samples were taken for analyses at each sampling campaign. Soil bulk density, total nitrogen and C/N were analyzed using geostatistics (variogram) in order to describe and quantify the spatial continuity. Soil properties showed spatial variability with the highest coefficient of variation being observed for C/N and the lowest for soil bulk density. The variograms revealed the presence of spatial autocorrelation. Soil bulk density was moderately spatially dependent, while Nt and C/N showed the weak spatial dependence. The range of influence was 810, 1200 and 3300 m respectively for C/N, Nt and bulk density. The contour maps produced by kriging, showed a heterogeneous and patchy structure for the estimated values of Nt and C/N. The kriging map also showed the highest increase in the area next to river for soil bulk density. 

Read full text

Analysis of earthworm’s patchy distribution and variability of soil biochemical properties under single - tree influences
Author(s)- Kooch. Y, Hosseini. S. M, Mohammadi. J, Hojjati. S. M

ABSTRACT

The forest soils can be strongly influenced by tree species. Many studies have addressed the effects of monocultures on forest soil biochemical and earthworms, but few have examined the effects of varying ratios of species within stands. The validity of the concept of "single - tree influence circles" was tested in a forest dominated by beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) on steep slopes in the Alborz Mountain, Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Due to, twenty hectare areas of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University was considered. The positions of trees with diameter at breast height more than 45cm were recorded by Geographical Position System (GPS). Three single - trees (trees with canopy cover separated from other trees and covered distinguished space) considered for soil sampling from every tree species and diameter class as three replications. All of soil samples were excavated in north aspect and at the nearest point to tree collar for more precision. Soil samples were taken at 0 - 15, 15 - 30 and 30 - 45cm depths using auger soil sampler with 81cm2 cross section. Soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, N mineralization, microbial respiration, earthworm number and biomass measured in the laboratory. Significantly statistical differences were found in the most studied characters. N mineralization, microbial respiration, earthworm number and biomass were significantly greater under hornbeam single - trees than in beech. These results indicate that single - tree influence on soil properties is detectable even in mixed stands on steep slopes and the soil landscape may be considered a mosaic of profiles reflecting the occurrence and chemical characteristics of the ground cover vegetation and of individuals of the various tree species present.

Read full text

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles by Rhizopus Stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against MDR strains of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa from burnt patients
Author(s)- Afreen, Rathod V, Ranganath E

ABSTRACT

The extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Rhizopus stolonifer and its efficacy against multidrug resistant (MDR) strains isolated from burnt cases from hospitals at Gulbarga region, Karnataka, India is reported here. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using fungal filtrate and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3). Characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy shows maximum absorption at 422 nm, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 5 to 50 nm. Energy Dispersive Spectroscope (EDS) shows the optical absorption peak at 3kev, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) shows the bands at 1633, 1554 and 1423 cm-1 which confirms the presence of protein in the sample which coat covering the silver nanoparticles known as capping proteins, and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) revealed three dimensional structures of the nanoparticles. Two MDR-strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P1and P2) from burnt patients were selected for the antibacterial study with AgNPs.

Read full text

Assessment of water quality in Trichy City, Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s)- Muthukumar.S et.al.,

ABSTRACT

During the last several decades, human economic activities, especially input of anthropogenic pressure have a trend of changes in the Earth and Ecosystem consuming ever increasing amounts of fresh water. Its availability at a spot is largely predetermined by the climatic and geological conditions.  This study has made a systematic approach to get an idea about hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater present in the area. The region is denser with agricultural activities and industrial impact. The waters of this region is comparatively unpolluted except in few locations and weathering of minerals present in rocks were determined to be the chief factor in controlling the water chemistry of the region.  An estimate on the available sources of water and need was done determine the sustainable management of water. Declining quality and quantity of water supply of the area can be attributed to the overexploitation of water and improper management of the existing resource, which needs immediate intervention. The hydrogeochemical studies of the region points out that, the present status is well within the considerable limits except for few samples.

Read full text

Heavy metal resistance Bacterium isolated from Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal
Author(s)- Gunaseelan. C, Ruban P

ABSTRACT

This is one of the series of works explaining about the pollution in the marine environment due to which there arises a population of bacteria resistant to metals. The sediment samples were collected on Krishna-Godavari basin, (lat 130 07’ N and 190 20’ N and long 730 22’ E) Bay of Bengal. Totally 53 different organisms were obtained from the sediment samples on the half and full strength nutrient agar media. Which were morphologically and phenotypically characterized by employing staining methods and all these were subjected to metal resistance tests in different concentration. Of this 79.24% were found to be resistant against 350ppm of Mercury (11.53%), 250ppm of Cadmium (3.77%), 700ppm of Chromate (50.94%) and 13.20% of  250ppm of Zinc. The resistance could have developed due to the selective pressure exerted on the organisms by heavy metals as that pollute the marine atmosphere.

Read full text

Improvement of economic Phytoremediation with heavy metal tolerant Rhizosphere Bacteria
Author(s)- Venkatesan. S et.al,

ABSTRACT

Phytoremediation is an emerging low-cost and ecologically benign technology for decontamination of soils. Heavy metals are continuously being added to soils through various agricultural and industrial activities such as the use of agrochemicals and the long-term deposition of urban sewage sludge on agricultural soils, waste disposal, waste incineration and vehicle exhausts.  All these sources cause accumulation of these elements in agricultural soils and pose a threat to food safety and potential health risks. A number of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) belonging to various taxonomic groups contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which hydrolyses ACC, the immediate precursor of the plant hormone ethylene. The application of heavy metal solubilizing microorganism is a promising approach for increasing heavy metal bioavailablity in heavy metal amended soils. This work is highly focused on isolating heavy metal tolerant bacteria and isolated 5 cadmium tolerant bacteria(Proteus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Coccobacillus sp.) and studying deaminase activity of methionine and alanine by estimating the level of α-Ketobutyrate which helps us to know the mechanism of plant growth promotion. It was observed that deaminase activity was comparatively high in Proteus sp. and it was found to be 0.78 (Deaminase assay of methionine) and 0.69 (Deaminase assay of alanine) at 360 nm. Even though cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, the cadmium tolerant organisms like Alcaligenes sp.  (0.8, 2.2 cm), Bacillus sp.(0.4, 1.2 cm), Coccobacillus sp. (0.3, 1.0 cm), Clostridium sp.(0.7, 2.8 cm) and Proteus sp. (1.4, 1.8 cm) helped the seedlings to grow and it was observed by the elongation of both root and shoot length.  Moreover, it helped in the remediation of cadmium present in the environment.

Read full text

Determination of soil erodibility factor using fuzzy rule base system
Author(s)- Mahdi pazhouhesh et.al,

ABSTRACT

Soil erodibility factor (K- factor) is one of the most important factors on USLE model. This factor is calculated on the basis of some soil properties such as soil texture (percentage of soil particles less than 0.1 mm and percentage of coarse sand particles larger than 0.1 mm), soil organic matter, soil structure and basic permeability of the soil profile. So far, various methods have been introduced for the measurement of K- factor. The objective of this research is to determine the soil erodibility factor using fuzzy rule base system. Sixty samples were collected from sixty homogenous units based on the Wischmeier`s nomograph method. After generating the fuzzy rules and calculating the soil erodibility factor, the results were compared with those of Wischmeier`s nomograph method. The results showed that the values of K- factor calculated by the fuzzy system are quite close to the values obtained by the USLE model and therefore, the fuzzy rule base model is introduced as the most suitable site selection strategy for determining soil erodibility factor.

Read full text

Strategies for Management of Metal Contaminated Soil
Author(s)- Rajesh Dhankhar, Rachna Guriyan

ABSTRACT

Heavy metals are inadvertently released during manufacture of various industrial products. They are serious pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation problems. Microorganisms have the potential to alter the reactivity and mobility of metals and thus facilitating the use of bioremediation as a form of treatment for metal contaminated soils. Utilizing microbes for bioremediation possesses various merits such as their natural occurrence, cheap production, easy availability and high selectivity in terms of removal and recovery of specific metals. This paper summarizes the general processes of bioremediation within the soil environment. The effect of environmental factors which governs the rate of biodegradation is addressed together with limitations and potential of ex situ and in situ bioremediation.

Read full text

Variation in the concentration of ground level ozone at selected sites in Delhi
Author(s)- Saxena Pallavi, Ghosh Chirashree

ABSTRACT

To improve the quality of air in a city like Delhi which is mainly affected by vehicular exhaust, from 2002 onwards, CNG has been introduced, which shows remarkable change in the concentration of pollutants, but even then there are some pollutants like NOx, O3 which are still either crossing their permissible limits or at the margin of their crossing. Objective of the present study is to compare the variation in concentration of ground level ozone at three selected sites in Delhi which are distinct in vegetation and traffic densities and to monitor, if the prevailing meteorological conditions are responsible for spatial variation of pollution in Delhi. For this, the sampling was carried out during two seasons i.e. monsoon (Aug.-Sept.’06) and winter season (Nov.-Dec.’06) at three sites - Site I (Inter State Bus Terminus - ISBT), a high density traffic intersection area with low vegetation, Site II (Yamuna Biodiversity Park - YBP, Wazirabad), away from traffic intersection with high vegetation, and Site III (University of Delhi - DU, North Campus), an institutional area which is near to traffic intersection i.e. with moderate traffic density and high vegetation. The overall result shows that highest concentration of ground level ozone was found at Site II (YBP) followed by Site III (DU) and Site I (ISBT) in the month of monsoon (Sept’06) whereas interestingly, in the month of winter (Nov’06), the highest ozone concentration was found at Site III followed by Site II and then Site I. This is might be due to the reason, at Site II in the month of September due to favourable meteorological conditions like less relative humidity which is negatively and highly significant to ozone concentration whereas, at Site III, in the month of November, this site is highly dense in vegetation and also near to traffic intersection so might be acting as an accumulation ozone of pollutants and moreover, with favourable meteorological conditions like increase in temperature which is positively correlated and highly significant with ozone concentration along with less relative humidity and wind speed which are negatively correlated with ozone concentration. Therefore, it was concluded that the site which is highly dense in vegetation and also have impact of vehicular emission exhibits high ozone concentration level than less vegetative area.

Read full text

The evaluation of Morphmetric characteristics of Upper Subarnarekha Watershed drainage basin using Geoinformatics as a tool, Ranchi, Jharkhand
Author(s)- Rasool.Q.A et.al,

ABSTRACT

The development of Morphometric techniques was a major advance in the quantitative description of the geometry of the drainage basins and its network which helps in characterizing the drainage network, comparing the characteristic of several drainage networks and examining the effect of variables such as lithology, rock structure, rainfall etc. The geographical position of watershed is 85010’0”to 85040’0”E and 23010’0” t0 23040’0” N. The elevation of the watershed ranges from 300m to 700m within Ranchi district. The study was carried out using the method of Horton and Strahler, to rank the stream segments using ArcGIS 9.2. The relevant numbers of the streams were entered into the attribute table and all other analyses based on the mathematical formulas. The results indicated that the watershed area was 594.68 km2, perimeter 159.26km, mean slope 32.21, axial length 54.70 km, basin width 23.61 km, form factor 0.20, compactness factor 1.40, circulatory ratio 0.29, elongation ratio 0.50, number of segments was 935 of each order those varied 1 to 6th. The stream frequency and drainage density were 1.57 (No./km2) and 1.12(km/km2). Bifurcation ratio and length of overland flow were 3.94 and 0.56 km. The results of this analysis would be useful in determining the effect of watershed characteristics such as size, shape, slope of the watershed & distribution of stream net work within the watershed.

Read full text

Assessment of Organochlorine pesticide in water and sediment samples collected from El-Rahawy drain, Egypt
Author(s)- El Bouraie M et.al,

ABSTRACT

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were determined in surface water and bed sediments from El Rahawy drain in the southwestern part of Nile Delta. Results obtained show that the concentration of ΣDDT compounds in surface water range from 0.008 to 0.239 μg L-1 and from 0.011 to 3.10 μg kg-1 (dry weight) in bed sediments during wet and dry seasons. Hexachlocyclohexanes (HCHs) have also been widely used in the region but the current environmental concentrations are slightly higher than those of DDT's, which is due to the less persistence of those compounds. Cyclodienes (Cds) were measured, for example as endosulfan II, in concentrations range from 0.021 to 0.823 μg L-1 and 0.09 to 1.73 μg kg-1 (dry weight) in surface water and bed sediments, respectively. The investigation of OCPs in the surface water and sediments are still within safety margins compared to Canadian guidelines.

Read full text

Charcoal production in Gushegu District, Northern Region, Ghana: Lessons for sustainable forest management
Author(s)- Benjamin Tetteh Anang et.al,

ABSTRACT

The rate at which forest resources are being depleted due to population growth and rising poverty has become a matter of concern to environmentalists and policy makers. The study was conducted in Gushegu District of the Northern Region of Ghana to investigate charcoal production as a livelihood support system and the lessons that can be learnt to ensure sustainable forest management. Sixty charcoal producers were randomly selected and interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Focus group discussions were also held with charcoal producers and users. Charcoal production was an important economic activity in the study area involving mostly women (70%) as a search for livelihood. Charcoal production was ranked as the second major occupation in the area. The activity also ranked second in terms of income generation. Deforestation, diminishing wildlife population, bush fires and nutrient depletion were identified as the most critical environmental effects of charcoal production in the study area. Most producers and consumers were willing to adopt more efficient energy sources but lacked the means to do so. It was concluded that charcoal production will continue to be an important economic activity in the study area into the foreseeable future hence the need for sustainable methods of production. It is imperative to look at charcoal burning as a livelihood support system. What needs to be done is to find ways to reduce the rate of exploitation of forest trees for charcoal production, while at the same time providing a sustainable livelihood system for the people who depend on these resources.

Read full text

Environmental noise assessment and its effect on human health in an urban area
Author(s)- Srimanta Gupta, Chitralekha Ghatak

ABSTRACT

Traffic noise is a major environmental source of pollution in the whole planet, both in developed and in developing nations. The present study focuses on the traffic noise assessment and its negative health effect on road side residents. Five different locations were selected along a National Highway of Burdwan having a day time Leq level of 60 to 89.5 dBA. Evaluation of various noise descriptors such as L10, L50, L90, Leq, LNP and TNI showed that people of the study area got suffered from slight uncomfortable feeling to a position of noise annoyance. Assessment of health effects among the 52 peoples of 10 families residing in the study areas for long time was conducted through a questionnaire based survey. Responses from the people were collected for analysis and the outcome revealed that 53%, 36%, 40% of people were suffered from headache, anxiety and high blood pressure whereas 36%, 15%, 67% and 61% of people were suffered from hearing disability, cardiovascular diseases, irritability and insomnia respectively. Chi-Square test was conducted among the different physiological and psychological effects and it was found that noise has a significant (α = 0.05) effect on hearing loss, sleep disturbances, abnormal heart beat and speech communication problem.  

Read full text

Removal of Zinc [Zn2+] Ions with Crab Shell Particles from Aqueous Solutions
Author(s)- Senthil Kumar. R, Parthiban, R

ABSTRACT

Crab shell particles were tested for its ability to remove Zn2+ ions from aqueous solution and were evaluated in a batch reactor and in a fixed-bed column. The binding of Zn2+ ions by crab shell was found to be affected significantly by pH, with maximum sorption capacity 71.46 mg/g observed at pH 4.5. The sorption isotherm of Zn2+ ions on crab shell particles was modeled on the application of Langmuir followed by Sips, Redlich-Peterson and Freundlich. It was observed from the kinetic data that the biosorption process using crab shells follow Pseudo-second-order kinetics. The influence of temperature on metal uptake showed that sorption process is favorable at room temperature and increasing temperature decreases the Zn2+ ion uptake. The influence of the co-ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) along with the Zn2+ ion present in the aqueous solution was also studied. A glass column (2 cm I.D and 35 cm height) was used to study the continuous zinc biosorption performance of crab shell particles with different bed heights. At 25 cm (bed height), 5 mL/min (flow rate) and 100 mg/L (initial lead concentration), crab shell particles exhibited Zn2+ ions uptake of 43.83 mg/gm.

Read full text

Spatial Information Technology as a tool for soil erosion assessment
using USLE - A study in the Shendurney Wild Life Sanctuary, South Kerala, India

Author(s)- Smitha Asok. V, Sobha V

ABSTRACT

Spatial Information Technology coupled with Universal Soil Loss Equation has proved to be an effective tool in the assessment of Soil erosion from an area. Soil, which is the primary resource of any Protected Area, needs to be conserved for its scientific management. Shendurney Wildlife sanctuary, one of the most biodiversity rich areas in the Western Ghats is endowed with a multitude of floral and faunal wealth. The USLE comprising of the five factors viz. R, K, LS, C and P is employed for the quantification of the soil loss from the Sanctuary. The results of the study helps to identify the areas prone to soil erosion in four categories namely severe, high, moderate and low. The low and medium category erosion class together comprises about 92.96 % of the total sanctuary area, whereas the high and severe category erosion class constitutes about 4.8 % of the sanctuary. These erosion hotspots have been identified and demarcated where location specific soil conservation methods need to be implemented. The effectiveness of the application of such a study can be further endorsed by its vital utility in formulating the Action Plan for the conservation measures to be adopted in the Sanctuary.

Read full text

Variation in Benthic population in two basins of Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal
Author(s)- Wanganeo Ashwani et.al.,

ABSTRACT

In order to assess the trophic status of a multipurpose aquatic resource (Bhoj wetland), the main attention was focused on its benthic population as it gives a fare idea about the functioning of the system besides assessing its trophic status, necessary from the point of view of adopting a management strategy. Upper basin of Bhoj wetland still forms the lifeline of Bhopal by way of providing potable water to the local habitants however, looking to its multiple uses it has been notified as per the guidelines of Ramsar convention as one of the important bird sanctuary. Considerable variations in benthic fauna have been recorded in both the water bodies. During the present study benthic fauna were represented by seven different classes belonging to Mollusca, Diptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Crustacea,Hirudinea and Ephemeroptera. Upper basin is richer in terms of species richness in comparison to the Lower basin. The dominance of Molluscan population in both the basins in terms of diversity and density has been recorded. Physico-chemical study revealed higher trophic status of Lower basin of Bhoj wetland in comparison to its Upper basin. Acidic pH values (6.43-6.9 units) of sediments of both the basins were also recorded. Also the values of Nitrate and Orthophosphate depicted their higher accumulation in the bottom waters of both the basins.

Read full text

Influence of physiographic factors on vegetative and morphological characters of Beech plus trees - A case study in Hyrcanian forest
Author(s)- Zoghi.Z et.al.,

ABSTRACT

This study was done to improve our understanding on the influence some physiographic factors including aspect and altitude on quantitative characters of beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) plus trees. This research was conducted in Experimental Forest Station of Gorgan University that is located in a temperate forest of Golestan province in the north of Iran. In this research, two parcels at high altitudes (800 - 900m) and two parcels at lower altitudes (550 - 650m) with east and west aspects were selected as well. After selecting of plus trees in every parcels, the characteristics including tree total height, stem height without branch, crown length and radius, trees diameter, annual mean growth of diameter and bark thickness were measured. Greater amounts of annual diameter growth were detected in east direction which had a significant difference (P<0.05) with west direction. Results are indicating that the tree total height, stem height without branch, crown length to total height ratio and annual growth of diameter had significant differences (P<0.01) between two altitude classes and the most total height and stem height without branch were observed in high altitude class. Crown length to total height ratio and also annual growth of diameter were decreased with increasing of altitude. Analysis of variance showed that interaction effects had no significant differences for all of studied characteristics. In total, our study supports that west slopes and upper altitudes have more appropriate conditions for growth of beech plus trees.

Read full text

Sedimentological characteristics of Perumal lake Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, South India
Author(s)- Vijayakumar.V et.al.,

ABSTRACT

A thorough knowledge of sedimentary processes that cause the production, transportation and deposition in varied hydrodynamic conditions, is most important in environmental reconstruction. Size analysis of sediment is an essential requirement to understand their mechanism of transportion and deposition. Textural parameters are primarily related to made of transportation and energy condition of the transporting medium in this study it is focused on classification of grain size certain measures (Mean, Sorting, Skewnees and kurtosis) of special relevance in lake sedimentological contexts and some applications related to sediment types and bottom dynamics. Lakes provide a multitude of uses and are prime regions for human settlement and habitation. It is important to approach the grain size study of the sediments and geochemical study of the Lake sediment for planning and management of Lacustrine environment.

Read full text

Environmental health aspects of coal ash phytoremediation by selected crops
Author(s)- Jerzy Bilski, Kyle McLean, Erin McLean, Fakira Soumaila, Mardee Lander

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to determine the effects of growth media containing FA and FA mixed with soil on selected crop plants seedlings growth. We studied the influence of various FA concentrations (e.g., 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% of FA in growth media by weight basis) in FA/soil composed media on the germination, growth, and heavy metals uptake of the following plants: barley, Sudan grass, ryegrass, rape, alfalfa, and canola.  Plants were grown on Petri dishes (10 cm diameter, 3 replications) for 14-21 days, harvested, dried, and weighed. Experiments have been replicated three times. The concentrations of Al, B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Sr, Ti, Tl, and V in growth media were determined, and the concentrations of the same elements in young plants were analyzed. Addition of 10, 20, and 30% of FA to the soil were acceptable for most plants, as compared to FA alone used as a growth media. Barley was the only plant of plants used in our research, which was able to sustain seedlings growth on media consisting on FA alone. Preliminary results of chemical analysis of FA and harvested young plants implicate that plants do not accumulate toxic amounts of heavy metals even being grown on media containing 100% FA. Our research results indicate that coal FA might be used as a plant growth media additive. However, additional studies should be undertaken to determine the effects of FA on plants grown till maturity.

Read full text

Biosorption of Lead with Turbinaria Conoides and Neuro Fuzzy Modelling
Author(s)-Parthiban.R, Senthilkumar.R, Latha Parthiban

ABSTRACT

Many hazardous heavy metals are released into the environment by industrial technological activities into the food chain which become a serious threat to the environment. Lead is a common industrial metal that finds uses in storage batteries, gasoline additives and ammunition etc. and causes severe health effects even at relatively low levels in the body, including irreversible brain damage and injury to blood forming systems. In this paper, rigid biosorbents for the removal of lead has been identified and modeling of the sorption and desorption process is done with intelligent neuro-fuzzy system.

Read full text

The Impact of Seafood Consumption on Endangered Marine Species on Hong Kong
Author(s)- Thomas Ng

ABSTRACT

Seafood consumption has become a societal norm among people in Hong Kong.  The local consumption of seafood products is placed 11th among 100 countries worldwide, much larger than developed countries, despite the fact Hong Kong is just a city.  Due to the lack of local fishery production, Hong Kong imports at least 1.8 times the local fishery products from other countries to satisfy demands.  Being one of the international centers of trade in seafood, Hong Kong also re-exports seafood products to other countries, especially Mainland China.  As a result of this large seafood trade, Hong Kong not only affects endangered seafood species from local waters, but also threatens species worldwide. Sharks, croakers, sea cucumbers, abalones, reef fishes and seahorses are identified as the species being endangered by the seafood trade.  This paper analyzed Hong Kong’s impacts from the seafood trade through the trade data. It was demonstrated the impact on sharks and croakers were significant.  Moreover, imports of the seafood products made from endangered species originate from all over the world.

Read full text

Graft copolymerization of Chitosan with acrylic acid used in waste water treatment
Author(s)-Shanmugapriya. A, Srividhya. A, Ramya. R, Sudha.P.N

ABSTRACT

Environment is deteriorating day by day due to industrial pollution, toxic chemicals leads to the accumulation of heavy metals contamination in the waste water. The waste water polluted by these effluents disturbs the normal use of water for agriculture, aquatic life. The purity and quality of water is a basic concern to mankind. So these effluents must be treated. Natural biopolymers are industrially attractive because of their capability of removing the metal-ions present in the waste water. Among the many other low cost absorbents identified chitosan has the highest sorption capacity for several metal ions (Deshpande, 1986). The use of biosorbent chitosan makes it possible to remove both heavy metals and organic compounds. Chitin, chitosan, acrylic acid polymers are individually used for waste water treatment due to biocompatibility and inexpensive. In the present study, graft copolymer of chitosan with acrylic acid polymer has been synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate, nitric acid redox system under UV irradiation. The synthesized copolymer was subjected to various analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm the formation of copolymer. The grafted copolymer was analyzed and proved with FTIR and DSC. The SEM results show the formation and strong chemical interaction between chitosan and acrylic acid. The prepared graft copolymer was treated with metal solutions containing copper, chromium and the results revealed that the copolymer prepared was excellent in removing the heavy metals like copper, chromium, etc. Hence, chitosan-g-acrylic acid copolymer could open way for waste water treatment in industrial level.

Read full text

 

                                          Page 1         Page 2

Share |