Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 7 - 2011

CONTENTS

Conversion Confusion — Does Annual P/B Equal Cohort P/B for Multi-yeared Organisms? A Cautionary Tale for Ecotoxicology Studies
Author(s)- France, R.L.

ABSTRACT

The ratio of secondary production to biomass (P/B), often referred to as the turnover rate and expressed on both a yearly and lifespan basis for aquatic macroinvertebrates and insects, has been championed as a measure of ecosystem function and as a means in which to gauge environmental disturbance. A review of the literature indicates, however, that opinions vary and enough confusion exists in terms of the methodology used to derive this metric as to question its uncritical adoption in investigations of ecotoxicology and stress ecology.  

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Bacteriocin production by Enterococcus sp isolated from rat intestine
Author(s)- Patil.M. M., Rajini Kumari, Y., Ramana, K. V.

ABSTRACT

Lactic acid bacteria are widely known for their inherent ability to produce antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins, which are ribosomally synthesized low-molecular weight proteins. The bacteriocins have great potential to antagonize food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms and they are being used as food biopreservatives. Attempts have been made to isolate bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria from rat intestine. Three bacterial strains i.e. DFR8, DFR15 and DFR25 were found to produce substantial amount of bacteriocins. All the 3 bacterial isolates were found to be cocci, homo-fermentative and catalase negative. Growth of these isolates at different temperatures, pH and in the presence of NaCl was studied. Optimum growth was found to be at 37oC and the strains were able to grow at high pH between 8.6 and 9.2, in the presence of 4% NaCl but not in media containing 6% and 10% of NaCl. Carbohydrate utilization and biochemical tests were performed for their identification. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics DFR8 and DFR25 were identified as Enterococcus faecium and DFR15as Enterococcus faecalis. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates showed broad inhibitory spectrum against various food borne pathogens and some standard lactic acid bacteria. Optimization of medium ingredients to improve the growth and bacteriocin production was accomplished. Partially purified bacteriocins were analyzed by tris-tricine SDS-PAGE indicating the molecular mass of the protein between 3.0 and 3.5 kDa.

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Biodecolourisation of textile dyes by local microbial consortia isolated from dye polluted soils in ngaoundere (Cameroon)
Author(s)- Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi, Mbawala Augustin, Tchatchueng Jean Bosco

ABSTRACT

Azo dyes are xenobiotic and recalcitrant against biodegradation, causing environmental problems. Under certain environmental conditions, microorganisms can transform dyes to non-coloured products or completely mineralize them. In the present study, the first attempt on dye decolourisation potentials of local microbial consortia isolated from dye contaminated soils in Ngaoundere-Cameroon were determined against two azo dyes. Decolourisation rate and kinetics were monitored by spectrophotometry under different conditions. Effect of process parameters: pH, dye concentration and inoculums size on dye decolourisation rate was optimised using the full factorial design. Microbial growth and decolourisation rate were higher in shaking than static conditions. The bacteria consortium gave highest decolourisation of 91.86% for azo blue and 93.75% for azo orange within 48 hours in shaking cultures; 57.78% and 62.06% respectively after 48 hours under static condition, followed by the mixed and fungi consortium. Kinetics studies revealed the bacteria consortia had highest tendency towards decolourisation, with a greater half live value for azo blue (13.97 hours) than for azo orange (10 hours). pH out of the range 7.2-8 and dye concentrations above 100mg/l reduced decolourisation rate by the bacteria consortia while increasing inoculums size increased it. Optimum decolourisation was achieved when pH and dye concentrations were kept low while the inoculums size was high.

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Crude oil PAH constitution, degradation pathway and associated bioremediation microflora: an overview
Author(s)- Kumar Arun, Munjal Ashok, Sawhney Rajesh

ABSTRACT

Crude oil, a dark sticky liquid, is a complex mixture of varying molecular weight which is used for the preparation of petroleum products. Crude oil contains more than 30 parent polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The U.S.EPA has designated 16 PAH compounds (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenenthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, benzo[g, h, i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) as priority pollutants. PAHs are one of the most widespread organic pollutants and potentially health hazard. Besides other environmental components, they are also found in foods (cereals, oils, fats, vegetables, cooked meat). They are carcinogenic , mutagenic , and teratogenic . Thus, key focus is to eliminate these hazardous pollutants from the environment. The present review highlights the presence of various PAHs in the crude oil, key metabolic pathway for the degradation and the associated microbial degraders. The current approach to bioremediation uses various bacterial and fungal genera under aerobic or anaerobic conditions to directly target the specific PAH. However, there is need to explore newer approaches to design an efficient, effective and ecofriendly bioremediation tool. The dearomatization of crude oil might be a useful comprehensive approach and one shot solution to multiple PAH population.

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Study on ambient concentrations of air quality parameters (O3, SO2, CO and PM10) in different months in Shiraz city, Iran
Author(s)- Mansouri.B, Hoshyari.E, Mansouri.A

ABSTRACT

More pollutants in the air influence on human health. The air pollutants emission problem has received a lot of public attentions and academic researchers in the past decades. The objective of this study is to investigate of monthly variations of ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM10) in Shiraz city, Iran. For this reason, data of mean monthly air pollutants from two stations of pollution monitoring stations were analyzed. The concentrations of these parameters were monitored by continuous monitoring equipment for a period of four years (from 2006 to 2009). There were significant monthly variations in concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that mean monthly concentration CO and PM10 were higher at station 2 than station 1, and also that concentration PM10 in warm seasons was higher than cold seasons. The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Shiraz showed seasonal variations for sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and PM10 concentrations.

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Phytodiversity in the submergence area of the Srinagar hydroelectric power project in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India
Author(s)- Yateesh Mohan Bahuguna et.al.,

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to assess the Phytodiversity in the submergence zone of the medium scale Srinagar Hydro-electric project, which is being constructed on river Alaknanda near Srinagar town of district Pauri Garhwal in Uttarakhand state of India. We recorded a total of 133 species belonging to 65 families and 113 genera. Of the 54 families, 26 were represented by single species, 12 by two species, 6 by three species and 10 with more than 3 species. Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae were the dominant families with 9 species each, followed by Amaranthaceae (7), Lamiaceae (7), Malvaceae (7), Asteraceae (6) and Solanaceae (6). These plant species were used by the local villagers for variety of uses ranging from food, religious uses, perfume, medicinal, fodder, dye, household articles, agricultural implements, beverage, fuel, ornamental, narcotic, insecticide, etc.

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Synthesis of flow series of tributaries in Upper Betwa basin
Author(s)- Chaube U.C et.al.,

ABSTRACT

In this study, HYMOS 4.0 software has been used to synthesize monthly flow series for thirteen years in each of the twelve tributary sub-catchments of the Betwa basin up to Rajghat. The HYMOS 4.0 software uses Sacramento model to synthesize discharge data. Monthly rainfall data for 14 stations from 1980 to 1992; ten daily discharge data for 2 stations (Basoda and Rajghat) from 1980 to 1992 and daily evaporation data for 1 station (Sagar) from 1980 to 1992 has been used as input in the Sacramento Model. The Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency between observed flow at the Basoda and sum of six tributaries synthesized discharge were found to be 0.862 and 0.837respectively. Similarly, The Coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency between observed flow at the Rajghat and sum of twelve tributaries synthesized discharge were 0.841 and 0.839 respectively. The difference between observed and synthetic discharge of Bina basin varies from 1.79% to 11.62%. High values of Coefficient of determination and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency indicate that model can be successfully used for flow simulation in the Betwa basin.

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Hydrothermal preparation of novel Photocatalytic composite, TiO2 deposited Calcium Alumino-Silicate beads and their Photocatalytic applications
Author(s)- Shivaraju H.P.

ABSTRACT

Well crystallized anatase phase of TiO2 nanostructures were deposited onto calcium alumino-silicate bead (CASB) supports under mild hydrothermal conditions. Suitable hydrothermal conditions were (temperature-250ºC, solvent-1M HCl and duration-24 h) applied for the effective deposition of highly active TiO2 nanostructures onto CASB supports. The compositions, specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, low density and surface roughness of CASB supports promise as potential supports for deposition of active photocatalysts. As-prepared supported photocatalytic composites were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, PALS and XRF. The analytical investigations of supported photocatalytic composite shows an effective deposition of active TiO2 nanostructures onto CASB supports with strong adherence and desired morphology. Fine crystalline phase of deposited TiO2, higher bulk porosity and low density of hydrothermally prepared photocatalytic composite enhances the photocatalyst values. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency was investigated by using aqueous solution of Alizarin dye as a model pollutant. The complete mineralization of dye contents was achieved by TiO2 deposited CASB supported photocatalytic composite under room temperature using batch photoreactor. The effect of various experimental parameters like initial dye concentration, catalyst load, aeration, initial pH and irradiation time on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency was investigated. TiO2 deposited CASB supported photocatalytic composite was found to be economic, easy to recover and reuse in the photocatalytic treatment.

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Dye removal from aqueous solution using low cost adsorbent
Author(s)- Velmurugan .P, Rathina kumar.V, Dhinakaran.G

ABSTRACT

The use of cheap and eco-friendly adsorbents studied as an alternative substitution of activated carbon for removal of dyes from wastewater. Adsorbents prepared from orange peel, which is a domestic waste, successfully used to remove the methylene blue from an aqueous solution in a batch wise column. This study investigates the potential use of orange peel, pretreated with nominal treatment method, for removal of methylene blue from simulated wastewater. Treated orange peel used to adsorb methylene blue at varying dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time. Similar experiments conducted with some other low-cost adsorbent such as banana peel, neem leaves and commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The adsorption capacity of orange peels decreased in the order of methyl orange (MO) > methylene blue (MB) > Rhodamine B (RB) > Congo red (CR) > methyl violet (MV) > amido black 10B (AB). Removal efficiency of all the adsorbents is quite effective, but orange peel found to be very effective compared to other low cost adsorbent within the short period. The sorption data were then correlated with the freundlich and the langmuir adsorption isotherm models. In both isotherms exhibited a maximum K value in which indicates that the orange peel has greater affinity for methylene blue. The maximum color removal efficiencies of orange peel at dosage of 1.0g for time duration of 45 min found to be 99% of the dye from an aqueous solution of 12.32 ppm. From the study it is understood that pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage plays a vital role in removal of dye.

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An assessment of environmental degradation: Case study of Avaniyapuram town panchayat, Madurai
Author(s)- Saravanan.P, Arun Prasad.K, Sudha.G, Ilangovan.P

ABSTRACT

The present attempt has been made to study the environmental degradation of the southern fringe area of Madurai city. The investigation is focused on Avaniyapuram town panchayat which comprises of three villages namely Avaniyapuram, Ayyanpappagudi and Kalkulam. Here, the geomatic technique is used to analyze the environmental issues as it gives an apparent spatial dimension of the problem, which otherwise cannot be achieved through a traditional approach. The major environmental problems identified are the unplanned residential expansion, ground water depletion and improper solid waste disposal. The analysis is carried out sequentially in three stages. Initially the landuse change detection is done for two time points through remote sensing and cadastral data for the region and secondly the quality of the ground water is assessed by collecting water samples and testing its chemical parameters in laboratory. Finally, the solid waste disposal site has been surveyed and the ground water around the site is tested.   It is inferred from the analysis that water bodies has been encroached for residential use and drinking water has been depleted in western and south part of the study area and improper solid waste disposal has made 32 % of ground water unfit for domestic purpose.

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Comparative studies of Cyanopith and Cyanospray biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on sunflowers (Helianthus Annus l.)
Author(s)- Bhuvaneshwari B, Subramaniyan V, Malliga P

ABSTRACT

The cyanopith (basal) and cyanospray (foliar spray) biofertilizers are organically produced by biodegradation of coir pith using fresh water cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria annae). The effect of cyanopith, cyanospray and chemical fertilizers on Helianthus annus L. has been determined by analysis of morphological, biochemical and yield. The present investigation showed that the biofertilizers treated plants showed significant increase in morphological, biochemical parameters and yield of Helianthus annus L. when compared with chemical treated and control plants.

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A review on fate of antiviral drugs in environment and detection techniques
Author(s)- Jain Swati , Vyas Raj K., Pandit Prabhat , Vyas Sangeeta

ABSTRACT

Use of Antiviral drugs has increased during past decade to treat viral diseases. This has resulted in development of resistance of the drug towards the target virus. Antiviral drugs have emerged as a new challenge for medical fraternity and environment in general and researchers in particular. Presence of these drugs has created problems for aquatic organisms and raised questions for their removal from water and wastewater. Antiviral Drugs have attracted attention of general public after the outbreak of the swine influenza virus at the global scale. In the present review paper, occurrence and fate of Antiviral drugs in aquatic bodies and environment have been discussed. Classification of the Antiviral drugs based on the types of disease in which they are used and various detection methods for the analysis of Antiviral drugs have also been reviewed.

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A pilot scheme for rooftop rainwater harvesting at Centre of Mining Environment, Dhanbad
Author(s)- Aditya Kumar Patra, Sneha Gautam

ABSTRACT

Dhanbad is one of the water scarce cities in India. Depending on precipitation intensity, rainwater constitutes a potential source of drinking water. Rainwater harvesting is the technology where surface runoff is effectively collected and stored. Harvested rainwater can then be used for drinking or for ground water recharge. Unless a proper water storage method is adopted, the rainwater harvesting may not be effective. This paper deals with a case study of rain water harvesting method adopted in Dhanbad city of Jharkhand state.

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Assessment of Groundwater Resources of Panandhro Lignite Mining Region, Gujarat State, India
Author(s)- Prasoon Kumar Singh, Dipanwita Bhakat, Gurdeep Singh

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of lignite in Gujarat has opened new avenue for industrial development. Lignite is known to occur since long in the Laki shales of Eocene age in the Kutch district.  The population of the Panandhro, Gujarat, India, is heavily dependent on groundwater. The present study summarizes the quantity estimations through water level fluctuation method of the groundwater resources found mainly in sedimentary rock aquifers. Scarcity of surface water resources has resulted into over stress on ground water resources in Kutch. The Bhuj sandstone (Mesozoic) in central Kutch is a major asset constituting good aquifer condition. With continuous withdrawal of ground water the water level has gone down and aquifer is now in unconfined state. The present study shows in brief the findings of the present status of groundwater level in the region during Pre-monsoon and Post-monsoon. This comparative study illustrates the exact scenario of the groundwater level fluctuations in the region. Also, this has necessitated the need to develop an adequate groundwater resource management plan of the area with specific reference to identification of the processes responsible for it and their proper evaluation.

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Integrated source water protection plan for an urban water body – A case study of Tapi river, India
Author(s)- George K. Varghese et.al.,

ABSTRACT

Source water storage for Surat city and its adjoining industrial area was created in 1995 by constructing a causeway-cum-weir across the river Tapi at Surat that supplies water through 11 intake wells. At the time of study, about 15 km stretch upstream of the weir was full of floating, submerged and rooted macrophytes. The study helped in identification of sources of pollution and stakeholders that were not known or documented earlier. More than 15 km stretch of the stagnant river upstream of weir passes through the Surat city and receives about 5200 m3 of wastewater every day besides non-point waste loads like open defecation, dairy farm waste, and laundry waste increasing the nutrient levels and ultimately the primary productivity. This paper presents the findings of the study and delineates a river water quality management plan taking into consideration the interest of the stakeholders.

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Studies on the response of House Sparrows to artificial nest
Author(s)- Bhattacharya R, Roy R, Goswami C

ABSTRACT

Sparrow population has decreased considerably in many parts of the globe in particular urban-suburban gradient. Being a cavity nest bird, use of artificial nest box may be an attempt to reduce the population loss of house sparrow. This work highlights the response of house sparrow Passer domesticus indicus to artificial nest boxes at different habitats (urban, suburban and rural) in West Bengal, India during the breeding season of the sparrow. At first one green box is erected beside a lake where various common bird species are present as a trial run to investigate the response of sparrows and then twenty four brick colour specially designed wooden boxes are erected at different habitats after searching suitable locations for the nest boxes. Eighteen out of twenty four boxes are found attempted by the sparrows. The egg size (354.78 mm2) and chick weight (15.33gm) are found comparable with natural breeding. In spite of the disturbances of other birds, predation, starvation and other environmental causes, the average survival and death rate are found to be 1.0 and 0.67 per pair respectively. It is also interesting to note that all the boxes of high noise level zone remain inactive. Statistical analysis shows that the response is positive.  Hence the nest box replacement may be considered as one of the solutions to enhance the population of sparrows particularly in urban and suburban areas.

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Groundwater quality studies in Nanjangud Taluk, Mysore District, Karnataka, India
Author(s)- Mahadevaswamy.G et.al,

ABSTRACT

An attempt has been made to classify the groundwater by various methods of Nanjangud taluk. The Nanjangud taluk having an area of 981.60 sq.km and it falls under Mysore district of Karnataka. Water quality parameters of the waters samples were analysed and the results of the analysis have been used to suggest models for predicting water quality. Quality of groundwater in a hard rock terrain is more controlled by the rock-water interaction and the residence time of water in aquifers. The residence time in turn depends on the groundwater systems within a larger hydrological unit. The hydrogeochemical facies of groundwater in the taluk of kabini river basin of Mysore district in Karnataka has been determined. Based on water samples collected and analysed from 50 locations, the hydrogeochemical facies in the area are found to be dominated by sodium-bicorbonate type.

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Artificial groundwater recharge studies in Sathyamangalam and Melur villages of Kulathur taluk, Pudukottai district, Chennai, using GIS techniques
Author(s)- Nirmala.R, Shankara.M, Nagaraju.D, Chinnaiah

ABSTRACT

In recent days south India in general is facing lot of water shortage both for irrigation and domestic consumption purposes.  In this regard the ground water plays a vital role in overcoming this shortage. Since, the over exploitation of ground water without proper recharge mechanism and scanty rainfall, the water table of the open or dug wells in the region are being gone into deeper parts of the surface and many a times even some of them were dried up.  In order to increase the level of the water table of the region it was necessary to adopt newer methods of ground water recharge.  Presently the sophisticated GIS technique was a very useful tool in order to assess, monitor and plan suitable way of ground water utilization. Recharging began in Europe early in 19th century and in United States near the end of the century, since then recharge installations have steadily increased throughout the world. As part of research work we undertook the GIS studies on the satyamangalam and melur villages of kulathur taluk, Tamilnadu as study area.  Using the available geo-reference map of the region we have digitized and analyzed to create the drainage pattern, elevation model and slope pattern of the region. Based on the lithology and topography of the area we have proposed some of the suitable methods of recharge.  This is in order to overcome the water shortage and to improve the storage capacity of the ground water aquifer as well as increase the level of the ground water table.

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Evaluation of the effect of legislation on wildlife conservation: A case study of Kainji lake National park, Kainji, Niger State, Nigeria
Author(s)- Idowu O.S, Halidu S.K, Odebiyi A.R

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted on the evaluation of the effect of conservation on wildlife offences in Kainji Lake National Park, Niger State was carried out in a period of four years since 2005-2009. Both primary and secondary collected data were analyzed and the results revealed that illegal grazing was the highest offence, recording 56.8%. Also, 15.5% were acquitted and 84.9% convicted and 16.1% went to jail and as high as 68.8% were able to pay fine during the period. Majority of the nights guards claimed that allowances were not paid and that staff were not accommodated properly and this has reduced the level of performance to their duties. 

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Biodiversity of Reef Ichthyofauna in Cuddalore Coast, Southeast Coast of India
Author(s)- Asta Lakshmi.S, Sundaramanickam.A

ABSTRACT

Coral reefs have the highest degree of biodiversity in its complex ecosystem which is difficult to manage. Reefs are ecologically and structurally important and they are also important resources, both economically and in terms of biodiversity. Understanding of the diversity of reef ecosystem is an important basic need. Coral reefs fishes embed the concepts of beauty, diversity and complexity. In the coral reef ecosystem finfishes contribute considerably to the biomass and species diversity. Present study aims to provide basic information on reef fishes inhabiting the Cuddalore coastal waters. The present preliminary observation may stimulate better investigation in future for the reef formation and reef ichthyofauna along the Cuddalore coast.

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Utilization and treatment of dairy effluent through biogas generation- A case Study
Author(s)-  Bhumesh Singh Bhadouria, Sai.V.S

ABSTRACT

Biogas is an alternate source of energy and after realizing the potential of biogas, a National level programme was initiated in India during 1970s. Present study on biogas generation from dairy effluent and control of water pollution has been viewed with the aim of control of water pollution through treatment of dairy waste as well as generation of biogas. Environmental parameters like Temperature, pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) & Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was taken in to account. No change in the average value of temperature and pH was recorded but BOD and COD reduced to the extent of 50 percent. All parameters however showed statistically significant differences at 5 percent level between inlet and outlet point. Gas generation fluctuated between .5m3/day to maximum 4.5 m3/day with an average of 3m3/day was recorded.

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Composition of life forms and Biological spectrum along climatic gradient in Rajasthan, India
Author(s)-  Sudhakar Reddy.C et.al,

ABSTRACT

Analysis of life forms of the vegetation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid regions of Rajasthan, a north-west state of India, was carried out based on the data collected from the field. The floristic and vegetation biological spectra of four study sites (Jaisalmer , Ajmer, Sariska and Mt. Abu) were compared. Analysis of life form spectra revealed the most striking feature of higher differentiation in proportions of therophytes along climatic gradient using vegetation spectrum. The proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes are highly variable across the sites indicate influence of climate. Biological spectrum of the four study sites has been compared with Raunkiaer’s normal spectrum to know the phytoclimate of that region. Jaisalmer, Ajmer and Sariska represents tropical arid climate, while Mt. Abu of tropical moist climate. The present study recommended to use vegetation biological spectrum because of proper representation of life forms of a given area. The disadvantage of floristic biological spectrum is underestimation of dominant vegetation expression and identical value to the rare species.

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Sub Chronic Toxicity of Arsenic Trioxide on Swiss Albino Mice
Author(s)-  Yasmin.S, Das J, Stuti M, Rani M, D’Souza D

ABSTRACT

We conducted an experiment to study the effect of low dose of arsenic on total blood cell count, liver and kidney functions of Swiss albino mice and to study the protective role of garlic and ascorbic acid on the arsenic induced toxicity. We found that the complete picture of blood was not significantly disturbed by low dose of arsenic but significant changes were found in the SGOT and SGPT levels of treated groups of mice as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine. However a significant rise in the blood sugar level was seen. Damage in the soft tissues of digestive tract and uterus were also seen. Therefore, it is suggested that water containing even low dose of arsenic should not be consumed. Protective roles of ascorbic acid and garlic were not seen in our study.

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Electrical and electronic waste condition and handling practices in bangi Industrial Estate, Selangor
Author(s)-  Nur Fatihah Roslim, Mohd Bakri Ishak

ABSTRACT

Due to the swift replacement of aged model by latest advanced model time to time causes short average lifespan of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and therefore leads to yield mass generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). EEE contains different hazardous materials which are harmful to human health and the environment if do not disposed carefully but E-waste is a valuable source for secondary raw materials once treated it properly. Safely recycling and discarding obsolete electronics can promote the safe management of hazardous components and supports the recovery and reuse of valuable materials. The reason is also due to the fact that the facilities are insufficiently designed to handle such kind of wastes. In addition, Malaysia is a developing country and there are many industrial areas in this country, for example Bangi Industrial Estate. Industrial area is one of a major producer of E-waste. This research seeks to study the current handling practices of WEEE in Bangi Industrial Estate, Selangor. In this research, observation, inspection and interview about E-waste handling practices was carried out in study area.

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CO2 Emission as a result of the fuel consumption and tillage quality in different tillage conditions
Author(s)-  Namdari M., Rafiee Sh., Jafari A.

ABSTRACT

Moldboard plow is the most common primary tillage implement, largest consumer of energy and a significant contributor to CO2 emission in agriculture. Operational variables in tillage could influence the environment and tillage quality. In the present study a field split-factorial experiment was conducted to examine the influence of soil water content, plowing depth and operating speed in tillage by moldboard plow on clod size, soil inversion, fuel consumption and CO2 emission as a result of the fuel consumption. Results showed plowing in moist of 15% formed clods significantly smaller than moist of 10% and increased soil inversion. A 33% increase in soil water content increased the fuel consumption and CO2 emission by 21.21% approximately. Effect of plowing depth on clod size, fuel consumption and CO2 emission were significant. Plowing at depth of 0.20 m significantly decreased clod size, fuel consumption and CO2 emission compared with plowing at depth of 0.25 m. The effect of plowing depth on soil inversion was not significant but decreasing plowing depth tends to increase soil inversion. Effect of operating speed on all attributes was significant. Increase operating speed from 3 to 5.5 kmh-1 decreased clod size, fuel consumption and CO2 emission as a result of the fuel consumption and increased soil inversion significantly.

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Ground water recharge zonation mapping and modeling using Geomatics techniques
Author(s)-  Binay Kumar, Uday Kumar

ABSTRACT

Availability of groundwater varies spatially and temporally depending upon the terrain. The scarcity of water affects the environmental and developmental activities of an area. Continuous failure of monsoon, increasing demand and over exploitation leads to depletion of ground-water level. This problem could be sorted out to certain extent by artificially recharging the potential aquifers. Construction of small water harvesting structures across streams/watersheds is gaining momentum in recent years. In the present study, potential sites for construction of rainwater harvesting structures in the Lower Sanjai Watershed of Kolhan Division of Jharkhand have been identified using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Since the study area comprises of hard rocky basement of Precambrians/Archaeans, the intersection zones of lineaments provides potential avenues for ground water accumulation and ground water recharge.

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Breeding biology of the spotted Owlet (Athene brama Temminck, 1821) in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s)-  Santhanakrishnan.R., Mohamed Samsoor Ali. A., Anbarasan.U

ABSTRACT

Breeding biology of the Spotted Owlet (Athene brama) were studied during the breeding seasons from January to April 2008 and 2009 in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, India. Of the 32 nest-sites located, the Spotted Owlet largely preferred holes/cavities found in trees, highest numbers of nests were located in Ficus benghalensis, rather than other sites for nesting. Nest-sites were found at a mean height of 13.3 ± 5.44m above the ground, diameter at breast height averaged 194.3 ± 22.49cm and nest hole location height averaged 6.9 ± 1.92m above the ground and  the mean height, width and depth of nest holes/cavities were 34.5 ± 10.42cm, 24.9 ± 9.24cm and 80.9 ± 15.74cm respectively. Clutch size varied between 2 and 5 with a mean of 2.6 ± 0.72 eggs. The maximum and minimum length and width of eggs were 31.0 x 23.0mm and 26.0 x 20.0mm respectively. Weight of the eggs varied between 10.0 and 17.0g. The mean incubation period of the Spotted Owlet was 26.2 ± 1.31 days and both sexes took part in incubation. The hatching and fledging success of the Spotted Owlet were 83% and 71%, respectively.

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Linear correlation analysis study of drinking water quality data for   Al-Mukalla City, Hadhramout, Yemen
Author(s)-   Sami G. Daraigan et.al.,

ABSTRACT

Ground water is the main principal source for drinking water and other activities in Yemen. It is an indispensable source of our life. The problem of ground water quality obtains high importance in this present-day, whether in the Arabic region or the other countries in the world. In this paper, a statistical regression analysis method of twenty one data points of drinking water at four fields (21wells) for Al-Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen was carried out in the study. This technique was based to study and calculate the correlation coefficients between various physicochemical parameters of drinking water at studied wells for Mukalla city. The results revealed that the systematic calculations of correlation coefficient between water parameters and regression analysis provide useful mean for rapid monitoring of water quality.

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Phytodegradation of textile dyes by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) from aqueous dye solutions
Author(s)-   Vasanthy Muthunarayanan, Santhiya. M, Swabna. V, Geetha. A

ABSTRACT

In this study, the removal of textile dyes, namely Red RB and Black B from their respective aqueous solutions have been studied using the Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Batch type experiments were done using the hydrophytes and its dye removal capacity was observed. The used plant material after the experiment was subjected to GC-MS analysis for determining the phytochemical components. The remaining waste material was subjected for composting and the compost produced was characterized in terms of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, Total carbon, Total Phosphorus ,pH ,EC and C:N ratio. The above mentioned experiments have proved the efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes to remove the color and degrade the dye by about 95% with Red RB and 99.5% with black B. The phytochemical component analysis indicates the increased production of Hexadecanoic acid, which may be a promising result, but the reduction in phytol content records a significant reduction in the chlorophyll content.

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Pond alkalinity: A study in Burdwan municipility, Burdwan, West Bengal, India
Author(s)-  Naba K Mondal, Jayanta K Datta, Arnab Banerjee

ABSTRACT

The present study deals with the selected physical and chemical characteristics of the surface water and sediments of Burdwan Municipality ponds. Determination of physical parameters (air and water temperatures and colour), chemicals parameters of water (pH, Cl-, hardness, alkalinity, phosphate) and sediments parameters (pH, available nitrogen and available phosphate) were carried out to identify the nature and quality of the water of Burdwan Municipality. The present study reveals that the quality of pond water positively depends on air and surface water temperature, pH of water and pH of the sediments. But none of the parameters are statistically significant.

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Chromium (VI) tolerance of bacterial strains isolated from sewage oxidation ditch
Author(s)-  Ezaka. E, Anyanwu.C.U

ABSTRACT

The response, to different concentrations of chromium (vi), of bacterial isolates from a sewage oxidation ditch was investigated. Bacteria were isolated from sewage effluent in the oxidation ditch and chromium (vi) tolerance of the isolates determined by plating on media amended with different concentrations of the chromium. The isolates were identified as members of Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Micrococcus sp. and E. coli. The growth of the isolates in presence of chromium (vi) showed decrease with increasing concentrations of the metal. The inhibition was significant at chromium concentrations of 200μg/ml and above. However, the growth of the isolates in the presence of 150μg/ml chromium showed lag phases much longer than that in the absence of chromium. The isolates were resistant to high concentrations of chromium as they were able to grow at Cr (vi) concentration of up to 500 μg/ml (10 mM). As a result, the bacterial isolates obtained in this study were intrinsically resistant to high concentration of Cr (vi) and can be potential candidates in the cleanup of chromium-contaminated systems.

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Pedo-Geomorphic analysis of soil loss in the lateritic region of Rampurhat I block of Birbhum district, West Bengal and Shikaripara block of Dumka district, Jharkhand
Author(s)- Sandipan Ghosh, Tithi Maji

ABSTRACT

Declining productivity of lateritic soil of India indicates land degradation, which occurs mostly through soil erosion and physical or chemical deterioration of soil. In the tropical wet-dry type of morpho-climatic region (western Birbhum and Eastern Jharkhand districts of India), the primary process of soil erosion usually takes place when falling raindrops beat the bare soil surface in heavy storm. Rainsplash erosion, sheet and inter-rill erosion (overland flow), rill and gully erosion are considered as major forms of water erosion. Due to high erodibility of lateritic soil, bare soil cover (deforestation), high erosivity of monsoonal rainfall, low clay, moisture and organic matter content of soil, the study area (border area between Rampurhat I block of Birbhum district, West Bengal and Shikaripara block of Dumka district, Jharkhand) is very much susceptible to rill and gully erosion. So the present article is an attempt to quantify the soil loss and sediment yield of catchments of sample gullies under different forms of water erosion.

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Impact of biomethanated distillery spentwash application on soil and water quality: A field appraisal
Author(s)- Shenbagavalli.S,  Mahimairaja.S, Kalaiselvi.P

ABSTRACT

In Namakkal district, the boimethanated distillery spentwash from the Salem Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd, Mohanur, has been applied in farmers’ field, particularly in dryland, as a source of plant nutrients and irrigation water. The impact of spentwash application on soil and groundwater quality was assessed in areas previously applied with the distillery spentwash. The ground waters samples were collected from open wells near the spentwash applied fields in Namakkal district contained large amount of salts, particularly K+ and Cl- suggesting that the water contamination is mainly due to the application of distillery spentwash. More than 50% of the samples were found unsuitable for irrigation purpose as they have shown greater potential for salinity hazards. Though no marked evidence was observed on the soil characteristics, the nutrients (N, P and K) and salt (Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO4) contents were relatively higher in these soils previously amended with the spentwash.

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Biodegradation of Azo Dye by Listeria Sp
Author(s)- Kuberan.T, Anburaj.M, Sundaravadivelan.C, Kumar.P

ABSTRACT

In this study azo dye degrading bacteria was isolated from various textile industries in and around Rajapalayam. The four bacterial strains effectively degrading the textile dyes were isolated, screened and analyzed. The toxic level of the dye and its metabolites were successfully estimated and it was found that the concentration of the protein in the culture increases with the increase in the concentration of the dye. Thus the stress is the main reason for the production of protein which in turn responsible for degradation. Phytotoxicity study was conducted in rice seed and monitoring the germination and growth rate of the seed. The results indicated  that the  growth of the plant is arrested when the seeds are soaked in the dye. Seed germination of the rice have a very low growth and germination rate with respect to the concentration of the dye and the degraded products showed  higher in toxic level . This confirms the formation of toxic aromatic amines. Finally biochemical analysis was done for the identification of the bacterial strains responsible for the degradation of the dyes. Among the four screened isolates Listeria sp., was found to be more effective.  

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