Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 2, NO 1 - 2011

CONTENTS

Evaluation of effect of drains on water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city using multivariate statistical techniques
Author(s)- Srivastava Shivani, Srivastava Anukool, Negi M.P.S, Tandon .P.K

ABSTRACT

World over, drains are the main source of water pollution especially for rivers flowing within the city. These drains generally carry industrial effluent, domestic waste, sewage, and medicinal waste results in pooring the water quality. The extent to which these drains pollute the water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city is not well documented yet.  The present study thus evaluates the effect of 26 drains on water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city, which submerged from cis side (14 drains) and Trans side (12 drains). For this, 13 necessary physico-chemical parameters from all drains were estimated as per standard methods and evaluated statistically.  The results revealed that most of the indicator parameters are above the permissible limits of BIS and WHO standards. The mean level of total solid, total dissolve solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, and sulphate at trans side was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than the cis side. Among drains, the kukrial drain (mid of the city) is the highest polluted drain while Gaughat the least (upstream). The higher level of pollutants polluting the water quality of river Gomti, disturbing the ecology of river and affecting human health directly and indirectly.

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Degradation of Alizarine Red-S (A Textiles Dye) by Photocatalysis using ZnO and TiO2 as Photocatalyst
Author(s)- Joshi K.M., Shrivastava V.S

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of semiconductors like TiO2 and ZnO used to remove a hazardous Alizarin red-S a textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of the Alizarin red-S was selected as a reference molecule for the adsorption studies. The experimental results show that TiO2 and ZnO can remove the Alizarin red-S from wastewater. The factor affecting rate process involved in the removal of dye for initial dye concentration, effect of various process parameters like initial dye concentration, contact time, dose of catalyst and pH. The adsorption rate data were analyzed using the pseudo first order of kinetics of Lagergren and Pseudo second order model to determine adsorption rate constant. The optimum contact time was fixed at 120 minutes for both TiO2 and ZnO. The well known Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equation were applied for the equilibrium. Beside the above the semiconducting materials have also been irradiated with Alizarin red-S before and after studied for SEM, EDX and XRD.

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Utilization of Amul Dairy effluent for agriculture practices
Author(s)- Sharma, N. K et.al.,

ABSTRACT

Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of Amul dairy effluent on certain physico-chemical properties of soil and on growth, and quality of Lady’s finger (Abelomoschus esculentus) and Guar (Cymopsis tetragonoloba.). The effluent used in different concentration 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The pH of the waste water was near about neutral but it contained an enough amount of nitrogen, phosphate, chloride, calcium, carbonates, bicarbonates and suspended and dissolved solids when compared with fresh water. Soil receiving the waste water showed no significant changes in water soluble salts, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, pH, total organic carbon etc. Moreover, waste water irrigation resulted in increased growth and nutrients of both the crops.

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CO2 emissions, economic growth and energy consumption in Iran: A co-integration approach
Author(s)- Saboori.B, Soleymani.A

ABSTRACT

This study examines the dynamic relationship among carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, economic growth and energy consumption based on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Iran during the period 1971–2007. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed as the estimation method. The results obtained suggest the existence of three forms of long-run relationship among variables when CO2 emissions, economic growth and energy consumption are the dependent variables. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis which assumes an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and environmental degradation. The long-run results indicate energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions. The stability of the variables in estimated model is also examined. The result suggests that the estimated model is stable over the sample period. 

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A pilot study on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon and its kinetics on kerosene simulated soil
Author(s)- Akpoveta O.V., Egharevba F., Medjor O.W.

ABSTRACT

A pilot study was carried out on soil from the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria, contaminated with kerosene by 10% artificial simulation to determine the attendant effect associated with the soil physicochemical properties and microbiological composition. Biodegradation of the contaminant using soil microbes biostimulated with a blend of animal wastes and the kinetics of such process was also investigated. Soil parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon and matter, total nitrogen and phosphorus, texture, heavy metals(Cd, Pb, Ni, V and Cr) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were characterized using standard analytical methods. Trend in growth phase of soil heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing microbes were investigated. Kerosene contamination was seen to affect certain soil properties as a reduction in pH, conductivity, total phosphorus and heterotrophic microbial population was observed, while an increase in the concentration of heavy metals such as Nickel, Vanadium and Chromium were recorded. Other soil properties were unaffected by the impact of kerosene. The rate of microbial degradation was found to be dependent on pH and nutrient source. Effective degradation and increased microbial growth occurred between between pH 6.0 and 9.5 but recorded reduced microbial growth and biodegradation rate at much higher pH thereby defining a suitable pH condition for the process. The method was found to be very effective and efficient as an impressive 82.24 % remediation efficiency was achieved on the sixth week. Kinetic evaluation of the biodegradation process shows that the degradation pattern followed first order with a rate constant of 0.034day-1. A determination of the biodegradation isotherm Kd gave negative value of unity showing the opposing trend between the concentration of the contaminant in the soil (Cs) and the concentration degraded by the microbes (Cd); which explains that as Cs is decreasing with time, Cd is increasing.

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Cost effective method for ammoniacal Nitrogen removal using SBR coupled photobioreactor
Author(s)- Sudarsan.J.S, Renganathan.K, Ann christy

ABSTRACT

Nutrient compounds such as ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrite and nitrate, often present in different types of waters and wastewaters, can find their way to lakes, rivers and drinking water reservoirs. Wastewater NH4-N is becoming more important in the alleviation of environmental problems including eutrophication, corrosion and fouling. A pilot plant was designed to study the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen using biological system. The nitrification process was carried out in a sequential batch reactor and removal of nitrate from the system generated during the oxidation of ammoniacal nitrogen was carried out in a photobioreactor using algae. On average 95% ammoniacal nitrogen removal was achieved by the sequential batch reactor and 98% nitrate removal was achieved using photobioreactor.

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The invisible risk of Ultraviolet rays at outdoor workplaces 
Author(s)- Tarun Batra

ABSTRACT

The exposure to the Sun’s Ultra violet rays when increased to a high level is responsible for causing serious health problems incl. cancer in multiple geographical locations around the world. It is a major issue and responsible for the death of millions every year. Excess levels of Sun’s ultraviolet rays can be extremely dangerous to the skin and are responsible for sunburn, premature aging and other types of serious skin damage. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. In summers, outdoor workers have high levels of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the associated increased risk of skin cancer. It is estimated that more than 8% of the US National workforce (over 9 million workers) primarily work outdoors. High rate of non-melanoma (basal cell and squamous cell) skin cancer has been found among occupational groups that work outdoors, though fatal cases associated with melanoma deaths are also significant. These high rates of skin cancer among outdoor work population have found to be significantly associated with cumulative UV exposure. This paper gives an overview of the significance of workplace interventions in order to educate workforce and modify their work environments to reduce incidents of cancer.

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Assessment of plant diversity in Khadimnagar National Park of Bangladesh 
Author(s)- Sobuj. N. A, Rahman.M

ABSTRACT

The study described the diversity of plant species (trees, shrubs and herbs) in Khadimnagar National Park of Bangladesh. A stratified random quadrate method was employed in the study. A total of 74 plant species were recorded of which 26 were tree species, 17 were shrubs and 31 were herbs. Among the tree species, Tectona grandis showed the highest density (3.03/100m2), frequency (76.67%), relative density (17.7%), relative frequency (11.3%) and relative dominance (37.3%). On the contrary, Alstonia scholaris represented the lowest density (0.07/100m2), frequency (6.67%), relative density (0.39%) and relative frequency (0.99%). The lowest relative dominance was found in Sterculia villosa (0.14%). However, species with the highest abundance was calculated in Chickrassia tabularis (4.58) whereas the lowest was recorded in Alstonia scholaris, Cynometra polyandra, Sterculia villosa (1). Moreover, highest importance value index was measured in Tectona grandis (66.3) while the lowest was showed by Alstonia scholaris (1.54). Concerning shrub species, Clerodendrum viscosum represented the highest density (1.03/4m2) and frequency (50%). In contrast, lowest density (0.08/4m2) and frequency (8.33%) were measured in Antidesma ghaesembila. Species with the highest abundance was found in Urena lobata (2.35) whereas the lowest was showed by Antidesma ghaesembila (1). With regard to the herb species, Thysalonema maxima showed the highest density (1.03/4m2). On the other hand, lowest density was measured in Seseli indicum (0.1/4m2). The calculation depicted that Eryngium foetidum had the highest frequency (45%) and the lowest was found in Seseli indicum (8.33%). But, species with the highest abundance was recorded in Centella asiatica (2.69) while the lowest was calculated in Amaranthus spinosus (1.07). Species of shrubs and herbs showed random to contagious distribution pattern. Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 2.76, 2.56 and 3.27 for trees, shrubs and herbs respectively.

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An Environmental Assessment of Urban Drainage, Sewage and Solid Waste Management in Barddhaman Municipality, West Bengal 
Author(s)- Sandipan Ghosh, Tithy Maji

ABSTRACT

Present day urbanization of most of the Indian cities and towns is not well associated with the rapid improvement of urban socio-economic facility and urban governance. Increasing percentage of urban population does not always mean increasing level of urban development, because, for example, more urban population means that they consume vast amount of resources and generate heave of waste and garbage which is not totally managed by urban local governing body due to less equipments, shortage of manpower and low circulation of existing facility in drainage, sewage, public sanitation and solid waste management.  Being an emergent urban centre and close proximity to Kolkata, Durgapur and Asansol cities, Barddhaman (or Burdwan) municipal area has expanded in a haphazard manner from 1980s. The existing facility of waste management and drainage does not cope up with the increasing load of population and daily waste, for example, due to easy accessibility of the main town, except jobs or finding out new settlements, in every day almost 2 lakhs population come to Barddhaman for education, business, health facility, shopping and entertainments. The result is environmental pollution and reduction in long-term prosperity of urban health. So the present article is a concise attempt to analyse critically (using statistical techniques and Geographic Information System) the present condition and problems of drainage, sewage and solid waste management in Barddhaman municipal area, West Bengal.

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Biodegradation of Phenol using Rotating Biological Contactor
Author(s)- Pradeep N.V, Anupama, Hampannavar. U.S

ABSTRACT

Many industries generate phenolic pollutants during their manufacturing processes.  Due to its toxic nature, it poses severe threat to environment if disposed untreated. In the present study the removal efficiency of phenol in a batch flow, single-stage lab-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) is investigated. The ambient room temperature during the study period was between 27-32 oC. The impact of process variables, viz concentration of phenol, rotational speed and percentage submergence of discs on phenol removal from was examined. It was observed that the phenol removal was 99% at concentrations from 40 to 180 mg/L. Reactor performance deteriorated when phenol concentration increased to 200 mg/L. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to achieve 99% phenol removal at the optimal phenol concentration of 180 mg/L was reduced with the increase in rotational speed (50, 75 and 100 rpm; HRT of 36, 28 and 24 hours respectively). The dissolved oxygen increased with the increase in rotational speed. At different percentage submergence of discs i.e., 40%, 35% and 30% to achieve 99% removal, the HRT’s were i.e., 24, 28 and 32 hours respectively. As the submergence of discs decreased the HRT increased.

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Treatment of distillery wastewater using single chamber and double chambered MFC
Author(s)- Hampannavar U.S et.al.,

ABSTRACT

Distillery wastewater was treated in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) at ambient room temperature which varied between 27-32oC. Microbial Fuel Cells can be simultaneously used for the treatment of wastewater and generation of electricity. In this study single chamber MFC and double chambered MFC were compared for the distillery wastewater treatment and generation of electricity. Micro-organisms present in distillery wastewater and sewage were used as inoculum, and distillery wastewater acted as substrate. Single chamber MFC was efficient and found to be producing maximum current of 0.84 mA, power density of 28.15 mW/m2 where as double chambered MFC produced a maximum current of 0.36 mA and power density of 17.76 mW/m2. Double chambered MFC was efficient in the removal of COD (64% removal) when compared with single chamber MFC which attained 61% COD removal efficiency. The removal of dissolved solids in both single and double chambered MFC was found to be 48%. Five varied feed concentrations were loaded to both the single and double chambered MFC and the systems were stable. The COD and dissolved solids removal observed in distillery wastewater might be attributed to the microbial catalyzed electrochemical reactions occurring in the anodic chamber of single and double chambered MFC.

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Traditional and Non- traditional Plant Growth Regulators alter the Growth and Photosynthetic pigments in Mentha piperita Linn.,
Author(s)- Kavina .J, Gopi. R, Panneerselvam.R

ABSTRACT

Alteration of traditional and non- traditional plant growth regulators (PGR) treatments on the growth characteristics of Mentha piperita Linn. (pippermint, Family: Lamiaceae) was investigated in the present study. The traditional PGR used were gibberellic acid (GA3), Abscisic acid (ABA)  and non-traditional PGR used were Difenoconazole (DIZ) by soil drenching on 35, 50, 65 and 80 days after planting (DAP).The plants were taken randomly on 45, 60, 75 and 90 DAP and used for estimating the growth and biochemical changes. DIZ and ABA treatments increased the fresh weight, dry weight, root growth, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, while it decreased the stem length. Among the treatments GA3 enhanced the fresh and dry weights and stem length increased the larger extent. Photosynthetic pigments were increased in DIZ treatments when compared to control. 

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Effect of land use locations on quality of Rainwater and Harvested rainwater
Author(s)- Roy M.Thomas, Sobha Cyrus, Benny Mathews Abraham

ABSTRACT

Scarcity of freshwater is an impending calamity on the global scale. The only way out is the timely and safe storage of rainwater. Now it has become mandatory in many states to harvest rainwater. Harvesting is to be followed by safe storage till the time of use. This paper reports the results of investigations carried out in different land use locations in Ernakulam district of Kerala State

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Ecological Footprint: A tool for measuring Sustainable development
Author(s)- Goel Sonu, Patro Binod, Goel Raj Sonika

ABSTRACT

Ecological footprint is a tool which is used to represent the amount productive land area which may be needed to regenerate the resource which are consumed by human population and it also represent the earths ecological capacity to regenerate the natural resources. Each country have its own ecological footprint and its need of the hour to manage the same. In the recent days researchers are focussing on identifying tools and technologies that may improve the environmental conditions and in turn increase overall sustainability.  For India, the ecological deficit is 0.40 (bio-capacity of 0.51 against human footprint of 0.91gha/capita). Considerable empirical evidence are available which shows that, while developing nations often are the least eco-efficient in the sense that they consume a lot of resources per unit of GDP, they also consume the least amount of resources in absolute and/or per capita terms. Less affluent nations, such as China and India, need to shift their development strategies away from relentless economic expansion and focus on strategies that improve people’s quality of life. Stakeholders from around the world are focusing on ways to promote sustainability and decrease environmental degradation. By highlighting the inequities within and between people and nations, ecological footprint provides a useful tool that can help to raise public awareness and shape a healthier and more sustainable future. This paper elucidates the importance of ecological footprint and its importance in improving the environmental standards.

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Concentration of heavy metals in Seagrasses tissue of the Palk Strait, Bay of Bengal
Author(s)- Govindasamy C, Arulpriya M, Ruban P, Francisca Jenifer L, Ilayaraja A

ABSTRACT

Seagrasses are considered as good indicators of heavy metals in the marine environment. Palk Strait is situated in the southeast coast of India, dominated with the seagrasses. The aim of this investigation to measure the various metals concentration (Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn) in two seagrasses species, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium in four selected stations (Karankadu, Soliyakudi, Thondi and Sundrapandiyapattinam) along the Palk Strait. In order to get more information and environmental conditions of the experimental area, total metal concentration was determined in coastal water and in the sediment. From the result, C.serrulata accumulates more amounts of metals than S. isoetifolium. Among all the four stations, station III (Thondi) observed high amount of metal concentration in seagrass tissues as well as its ambient environment.

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Water quality indices used for surface water vulnerability assessment
Author(s)- Bharti N, Katyal.D

ABSTRACT

Assessment of water quality can be defined as the analysis of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. Water quality indices aim at giving a single value to the water quality of a source reducing great amount of parameters into a simpler expression and enabling easy interpretation of monitoring data. In this study, various water quality indices (WQI) used for assessing surface water quality are discussed. As different National and International Agencies involved in water quality assessment and pollution control defines water quality criteria for different uses of water considering different indicator parameters, so there are numerous WQI specific to any region or area.  An attempt to cover all different water quality indices developed worldwide, their background and application area has been made here. In this context, this paper displays a comparative study of many indices and detailed out eight WQI’s perceived as simple, basic and most important indices for water quality assessment. Their mathematical structure, set of parameters, calculation, aggregation formula and flaws have also been detailed out.

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Humic acids from the sediments of three ecologically different estuarine systems- a comparison
Author(s)- Anuradha.V, Nair.S.M, Kumar.N.C

ABSTRACT

Humic acids from the sediments of mangrove, estuarine and barmouth regions were isolated and characterized on the basis of elemental and functional group analyses. From the empirical formula deduced, it could be seen that humic acids segregated from the sediments of barmouth region is much different than those from estuarine and mangrove sediments.  Humic acids from mangrove regions are proved to be much developed. The interactive effects of these developed humic acids with toxic metals like lead and cadmium were studied. The sorptional studies at varying metal concentrations and pH showed that lead binds on to humic acid easily than cadmium. Characterization with isothermal models reveled that the adsorption is more prominent at neutral pH. adsorption of lead fits well in to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but of cadmium only to Freundlich isotherm.  At higher pH humic acid facilitates the dissolution of metal to the water column there by enhancing the toxicity and bioavailability.

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Prediction of daily air pollution using wavelet decomposition and Adaptive-Network-based fuzzy inference system
Author(s)- Mittal Ashish, Bhardwaj Rashmi

ABSTRACT

In this paper, forecasting of daily air pollution is presented using the method of wavelet decomposition and Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Infer system (ANFIS). Daily averaged value of air pollution parameters Carbon Monoxide (CO) for the year 2007 is used for decomposition using daubechies 8 wavelet at level 3.  To obtain the acceptable accuracy of forecast, the wavelet coefficients are predicted using Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Infer system (ANFIS).  ANFIS serve as a basis for constructing a set of fuzzy if-then rules with appropriate membership functions to generate the stipulated input-output pairs. On the basis of these predicted values the final forecasting is prepared .The result is compared with actual future data and relative performance of this procedure is investigated.

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Isolation, identification and seasonal distribution of bacteria in Dal Lake, Kashmir
Author(s)- Saleem S et al.,

ABSTRACT

This research work determined the bacteriological characteristics of the waters of Dal Lake, Kashmir. Bacteriological studies were carried out from April 2010 to March 2011 at eight different sites. Out of total 894 bacterial colonies isolated, 11 isolates of bacteria namely Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Serratia marcesens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus spp, and Salmonella spp. were studied for isolation, identification and seasonal distribution in Dal lake waters.. Out of these species, E. coli was most abundant (15.77%) followed by Enterobacter aerogenes (12.19%), Bacillus spp (11.96%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.85%), Micrococcus luteus (10.17%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.27%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.71%), Vibrio cholerae (6.59%), Salmonella spp (6.15%), Serratia marcesens (5.92%) and Citrobacter freundii (5.59%). Highest number of colonies 155(17.33%) were obtained from site PKB followed by DLG- 136 (15.21%), GB-126 (14.09%), NL-116 (12.97%), TBN-113 (12.63%), BHN-107 (11.96%), HB-74 (8.27%), BD-67 (7.49%).

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Analytical study and microorganisms present in rain water of different areas
Author(s)- Kondal Reddy.Y et al.,

ABSTRACT

Rainwater serves as a source of many essential nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Rainwater harvesting is the process of storing water in sub surface so that it can be used later. The pollution increases day by day due to industrialization, population exploitation, deforestation and vehicular exhaust. Due to the change in environmental conditions the purity of the rain water is gradually decreasing and furthers this effect the growth of various organisms and plants in various ecosystems. In this study the rainwater samples were collected from four different environmental conditions such as forest area, rural area with less and high pollution and industrial area. The quality of this work mainly is on analysis of microbial growth, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, temperature, pH, chlorides, carbonates, bicarbonates, sulphates, turbidity and hardness of rain water. This project can be further extended in order to purify the rain water by special instruments so that life of species can be balanced. The project can be approached from different studies such as environmental science, chemistry and microbiology.

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Change detection studies in coastal Zone features of Nagapattinam,
Tamilnadu by Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

Author(s)- Krishnakumar. P et al.,

ABSTRACT

Landuse/land cover changes have emerged as a global phenomenon and perhaps the most significant regional anthropogenic and natural disturbance to the environment. The study aided with temporal remotely sensed data for landuse/ land cover mapping in Nagapattinam coastal area between 1999 and 2007 with reference to SOI toposheets to assess the changes that has taken place in the coastal landuse. The interpreted data were verified in the field and results were corrected. The major types of land cover area are agriculture land, plantations, settlement, salt affected land, aquaculture, land with shrub and sandy area. The results indicate that agriculture area is dominant landuse class in Nagapattinam coast and its surroundings followed by plantation. Same time, 22.5 km2 of salt affected area increased due to brackish water aquaculture and tidal inundation. The major geomorphic features identified are deltaic plain, mud/ tidal flat, paleo-beach ridge, beach ridge, sand dune, salt flat and coastal plain. Among these, deltaic plain covers majority of the area (62.4 %). The baseline information generated on land use pattern and geomorphology of the area would be of immense help for protecting the coastal environment to sustainable development. The study recommends the use of satellite imagery for effective environmental monitoring and assessment.

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Major nutrient dynamics of two plant species at matha protected forest of Purulia, West Bengal, India
Author(s)- Biswas S, Khan DK

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out in a tropical dry deciduous forest known as Matha Protected forest (MPF) of Purulia district, West Bengal, India which is fragmented into two parts namely Plot A and Plot B. The area is covered mainly with sal (Shorea robusta) and sidha (Lagerstroemia parviflora). The objective of the present study is to determine the distribution of nutrient content in green leaf, leaf litter and soil to improve the understanding of flow of nutrients and their losses within the ecosystem that will give information for effective forest management strategies. From analysis it is revealed that P use efficiency is enhanced than N and K for Shorea robusta, while K use efficiency is higher than P and N in Lagerstroemia parviflora. We found site-dependent and between-species differences in nutrient content and nutrient remobilization. Above all, Plot A shows decreased Nutrient Use Efficiency (NUE) and Nutrient Retranslocation Efficiency (NRE) than Plot B which in turn depicts nutrient (mainly P and K) limitation at fragmented Plot B.

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Assessment of Forest Cover Decline in Pakistan: A GIS Perspective
Author(s)- Ahmad. S. S, Abbasi. Q

ABSTRACT

Forests play a key function in maintaining global ecological balance and comprise essential natural resources of world which are being spoiled and depleted worldwide. Deforestation remains one of the most intractable environmental problems. Pakistan being a developing nation has limited forest resources. The rising climate change consequences remain the primary culprit behind this phenomenon. The rate of deforestation in Pakistan is 0.2% to 0.5% per annum, which is very high and alarming. The present study intends to focus attention on the extent of forests decline in various provinces and regions of Pakistan using GIS tools. The spatial and temporal dimensions of the physical and biological attributes concerning forest resources can be well represented graphically by using GIS techniques. The analysis of annual change rate forest decline for the last two decades revealed that the forests of Pakistan are under continuous threat of degradation and are being reducing at the rate of 0.71% yearly due to varying climatic conditions, natural and anthropogenic activities. The current study emphasized the need for conservation of forests as a fundamental task to be accomplished in order to avoid their vulnerability against various environmental and socio-economic disturbance as well as maintenance of regional ecological balance.

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Arsenic induced Biochemical perturbation in Swiss Albino Mice and Cytoprotective activities of Curcumin
Author(s)- Richa Karmakar et al.,

ABSTRACT

Arsenic compounds react with sulfhydryl (-SH) groups of cellular proteins, thereby inhibiting cellular oxidative processes. Curcumin can significantly inhibit the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide anions, H2O2 and nitrite radical generation by activated macrophages, which play an important role in inflammation. The aim of present work is to bring out the toxicological effects caused by arsenic and therapeutic efficacy of curcumin in terms of normalization of altered biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino Mice.  Six groups of Mice were treated with sodium arsenite via food and drinking water route, as drinking water and food is the major direct source of arsenic exposure by general population. Arsenite-treated mice with highest toxic effects were treated with different doses of curcumin via oral route. It was observed that curcumin was very successful as a protective agent against arsenic toxicity. Curcumin was able to lower the biochemical toxic responses caused by arsenic toxicity. Oral doses of 0.5-1 mg (/gm of food) of curcumin reduced acid phosphatase activity 43%-70%, alkaline phosphatase activity 40%-63% and glutathione activity 27%-41% as these enzymes are biomarkers for arsenic-induced toxicity so present study may be useful for furthering the scope of indigenous therapeutics against arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.

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Distribution of air pollutants in ambient air of district Haridwar (Uttarakhand), India: A case study after establishment of State Industrial Development Corporation
Author(s)- Joshi P. C, Semwal Mahadev

ABSTRACT

This paper presents data on the concentration of air pollutants at different places of a newly developed industrial estate in a highly growing city of State of Uttarakhand, India. The out come of the study has been presented in the form of Air Quality Index (AQI). The ambient air quality survey was carried out at four different locations with respect to SO2, NO2, SPM and RSPM, and monthly air sampling was carried out for a period 24 hrs at each of the site. Pollutants concentration was used to calculate the air quality index which ranged between 62.50 to 109.0 thus categorizing the sites from moderate to heavily polluted on a five level air quality index with potential health hazards.

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Advanced landfill leachate treatment with least sludge production using modified Fenton process
Author(s)- Mahmud. K et al.,

ABSTRACT

This research was undertaken to investigate various operating conditions of Fenton treatment process for minimizing the sludge production and maximizing COD as well as colour removal from landfill leachate. Sample was collected from Matuail landfill site, one of the major landfill sites of Dhaka City Corporation. For optimum pH value of 5 and optimum dosages of Fenton reagents having H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio of 1.3 the highest removal of COD and colour were found 68% and 87% respectively with massive sludge production of 75%. The COD and colour removal efficiencies with a three-step dosing of reagents were 11% and 7% higher respectively with 17% less sludge production than those with single dosing of individual Fenton treatment process. Also recycling of Fenton sludge enhanced COD removal efficiency by 6% having similar colour removal efficiency and reduced sludge production significantly by 38%. With all optimum parameters, the highest removal of COD and colour were found 84% and 93% respectively with sludge production of 30% through multiple dosing of Fenton reagents with sludge recirculation. Conversely, pretreatment with extended aeration before Fenton process provided the achievement of 89% COD and 97% colour removals having less sludge volume reduction.

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Assessment of chloride concentration in groundwater: A case study for Belgaum City
Author(s)- Sameer V et al.,

ABSTRACT

Chlorides are important in detecting the contamination of groundwater by sewage. The groundwater in Belgaum city was analyzed for their chloride content and other related parameters in January and May month during the year 2010. In present study twenty five groundwater samples collected from open wells and analyzed for chloride content. The chloride concentration varied from 34.86 mg/l to 333.05 mg/l during the month of January and 31.77 mg/l to 297.86 mg/l during the month of May. High concentration of chloride was observed downstream of Lendhi nala. High coefficient of variance indicates a great variability of chloride concentration in groundwater. A positive correlation of chloride with calcium, magnesium and sodium indicates non carbonate hardness and with TDS and EC indicates salinity. It is observed that, there is increase in chloride concentration (based on data from 2002 to 2010) in various parts of the city indicates mixing of sewage and groundwater. The regression equations have been developed between chloride and other water quality parameters. 

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Water quality studies of groundwater in the proximity of River Noyyal, Tiruppur, South India
Author(s)- Chitradevi. S, Sridhar S.G.D

ABSTRACT

In this study, the level of penetration of polluted riverwater on the adjoining aquifers were carried out. Various tools such as Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Wilcox diagram, United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) and Geographical Information System (GIS) were used to evaluate the quality of water and its suitability for various consumption purposes. Results of SAR show that many of the wells during premonsoon illustrate high values indicating the unsuitable nature of groundwater for irrigation but during postmonsoon, SAR values found to be decreased due to the dilution effect of precipitation by monsoon.  Wells belonging to the 1st layer demonstrates very high SAR value and the subsequent layers show diminished values indicating the effect of percolation is not significant as the distance increases.

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Invitro Biofilm Production of ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 Strain
Author(s)- Chitradevi. S, Sridhar S.G.D

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms in general gets attracted towards inert surface in liquid medium and produce an adhesive substance, the glycocalyx which envelops growing community, the glycocalyx and bacterial inhabitants together is referred to as microbial biofilm. Biofilm cells differ significantly in their physiological properties and are resistant to antibiotics, antibodies, heat, surfactants and biocides when compared to planktonic (free) cells. Biofilm is an important strategy used by some microorganisms for survival. In the present study was carried out to optimize the invitro culture conditions required for biofilm formation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Tryptic soya broth (TSB) was employed as the growth medium for biofilm production using chitin flakes as inert surface. The 0.08 percent with 0.3 percent w/v chitin flakes is the optimum concentration of TSB required for maximum biofilm production by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Biofilm cell population reached peak on day two, while planktonic cell population started decreasing after day one post inoculation. Decline of biofilm cells was gradual compared to planktonic cells.

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Optimization of Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) production by Acetobacter diazotrophicus L1 isolated from Sugarcane
Author(s)- Nita B. Patil et al.,

ABSTRACT

Based on morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics, a newly isolated bacterium from the stem of the Indian sugarcane variety Co 740 was identified as Acetobacter diazotrophicus and was designated as L1. Cultural and nutritional conditions were optimized for indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The effect of increasing sucrose concentration and different nitrogen sources on IAA production were studied. Shaking increased the production of IAA. The isolate produced high amount of IAA (26.28 µg/ml) when basal medium (pH 6) was supplemented with sucrose (12% w/v), yeast extract (0.05 g/l), L-tryptophan (1.2 g/l) and NH4Cl (0.1% w/v) at 200 rpm. IAA production increased up to 2.6 fold over control. Inoculation with A. diazotrophicus L1 increased root and shoot biomass as well as IAA level of the fresh root tissue of maize plant. The results indicated that A. diazotrophicus L1 produced high amount of IAA than reported earlier.

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Analysis of causes for high organic and inorganic pollution in denim processing effluent
Author(s)- Rathinamoorthy. R, senthilkumar. P

ABSTRACT

Textile industry is one of the most important and rapidly developing industrial sectors. It has a high importance in terms of its environmental impact, since it consumes considerably high amount of water and produces highly polluted discharge water in large amount. In this study, the pollution assessment was performed in various parts of denim processing textile wastewater in three steps. In the first step the wastewater samples were collected from the Denim processing industry. The pollution load was analysed in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) as per standards. Higher Organic content in the Mercerizer effluent was identified which is due to the acidic nature of Neutralizing agents. As a second step, ANOVA and correlation coefficient analysis were performed to identify the significant differences, correlation between the properties of effluent respectively. In the final step the reductions in pollution load were achieved by applying suitable pollution prevention strategies

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Successional changes in Shrub community composition in an age series of restored mined sites and natural forest in Uttarakhand, India
Author(s)- Soni Prafulla, Gairola Shikha Uniyal

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to understand the successional changes, which take place in shrubby vegetation in an age series of 23, 22, 21 and 20 years old mine restored sites at Dehradun district in Uttarakhand, India and an adjoining natural forest was also studied for comparison of composition of shrubs species community in all sites. Phytosociological survey was conducted in all the restored sites and the natural forest for composition of shrubs species community by using quadrat method. The critical examination of the data shows that although some of the planted species like Agave sisalana, Dodonea viscosa and Rumex hastatus are still present but their density has declined considerably through the entire years of successional development. The results reveal that higher successional species had invaded the area and some of the shrub species which were planted in the initial phase of restoration  had declined in their density and some species have vanished from the area altogether. The results confirms the fact that as the age of succession increases, the restored area gets occupied by the higher successional species and also an ecologically sound restructured system forms which is an indication of the efficacy of the restoration programme leading to a self sustaining system.  

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Assessment of Physico-Chemical properties and sewage pollution indicator bacteria in surface water of River Gomti in Uttar Pradesh
Author(s)- Srivastava Anukool, Srivastava Shivani

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to estimate current status of Physico-chemical chararacterstics and level of sewage pollution indicator bacteria and their variation at whole stretch of river Gomti. The sampling covered from upstream to downstream regions of the river representing pre monsoon (Jan-April), monsoon (May-Aug), and post monsoon (Sept-Dec) in two years i.e. 2008 and 2009. Eight water samples are subjected to Physico-chemical analysis like Water temperature, Total Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solid, Conductivity, pH, COD, BOD and DO. The bacteriological study of these samples included bacteriological parameters like Total Coli (TC), Faecal Coli (FC) and Faecal Streptocoli (FS) has given the information regarding the suitability of the water for various uses like drinking and other domestic applications. The results are based on Spatial Variation, Seasonal Variation and Temporal Variation. Conclusions revealed that large number of drains in Lucknow city and industrial discharge is mainly responsible for pollution in river Gomti. 

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Inter-generic bio-variability and relative abundance of adult female biting mosquitoes in wet and dry land areas of selected villages in a semiarid zone
Author(s)- Sundaravadivelan C et al.,

ABSTRACT

The present study gives valuable information on the biodiversity and their relative abundance of biting female mosquitoes occurring in four villages (Senkulam, Attikulam, Chittalamputtur and Kadampankulam) of Srivilliputtur town and five regions (Central region, Northern region, Western region, Southern region and Eastern region) of Keelaarunachalapuram village nearly located to town of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu between September 2007 and February 2008. This both study area has contained various types of human settlements and with varying number of cattles and other animals. A total of 4059 mosquitoes of 15 species belongs to 4 genera were collected in all regions and villages of both study area. The study period was divided into two periods such as early (September, October, November) and late cultivation (December, January, February) period. A total of 2070 mosquitoes were collected in early cultivation period and 1989 mosquitoes were collected in late cultivation period. Culex species was highly noticed followed by Aedes, Anopheles and Armigeres respectively in both cultivation periods of all regions of Keelaarunachalapuram village and also Culex species was highly noticed followed by Anopheles, Armigeres and Aedes respectively in both cultivation periods of all villages of Srivilliputtur town.

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Effect of cyanopith and cyanospray biofertilizer on Amaranthus Dubius
Author(s)- Manoharan.G, Chitra Devi.K, Malliga.P

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted in the Model Organic Form, Department of Marine Biotechnology, National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria, Bharathidasan University, Trichirappalli-620024, Tamilnadu, India, during 2010. Agriculture in India has been a major component of the Indian economy. Biofertilizers are microbial inoculants containing live or latent cells of efficient nitrogen fixing or nutrient mobilizing microorganisms from the environment. Biofertilizers can provide to the small and marginal farmers economically viable weapon to attain the ultimate goal of increasing crop productivity. This study was carried out to utilize the available lignocellulosic waste of coir pith for it’s conversion into biofertilizer by cyanobacteria and to analyze the growth promoting ability of cyanopith as basal and cyanospray as foliar fertilizer on Amaranthus dubius.

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Comapartive Study on Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus and Eclipta prostrata  against  alcohol induced in albino rats
Author(s)- Arun. K, Balasubramanian. U

ABSTRACT

Our research studies data suggest that, there were significant variations in the observed biochemical parameters. The level of TBARS in ethanol intoxicated rats increased two fold when compared with the control animals. The levels of GSH, SOD and CAT decreased significantly in the ethanol intoxicated rats. The level of GPx was increased in the ethanol intoxicated rats. The value of vitamin E in both plasma and liver samples were less when compared with the control animals. Similarly, the value of vitamin C was also showed decreased level in plasma. Serum iron and copper levels were elevated to a higher level. The therapeutic administrations of Phyllanthus amarus and Eclipta prostrata leaves fine powder greatly change the biochemical parameters in the ethanol intoxicated rats and maintained well to the normal level. These results clearly suggest that, the Phyllanthus amarus and Eclipta prostrata have enormous hepatoprotective value. Among the two plants Phyllanthus amarus has slightly high activity as compare toEclipta prostrata. These herbal drugs have equivalent therapeutic value with the standards drug Silymarin. Moreover, it is very important to study the specific phytochemical compounds responsible for this hepatoprotective effect.

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