Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 2, NO 2 - 2011

CONTENTS

AdBlue: An Overview
Author(s)- Yadav Indrajit N.

ABSTRACT

AdBlue is an ultra pure solution of urea in demineralised water, used in the latest generation of commercial diesel vehicles for the removal of Nitrous Oxide, an environmental pollutant. It consists of high purity urea dissolved and suspended within de-ionized water. The ratio of the mix is approximately 32.5% urea and 67.5% de-ionized water. It is used by modern diesel engines which are equipped with an SCR, AdBlue never comes into contact with the fuel, and it is a common misconception that it is an additive. AdBlue is carried onboard the vehicle in a separate vessel to the fuel storage tank.  It is injected into the exhaust gases as a post combustion process through an SCR where it breaks harmful Nitrous Oxide emissions down into mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen. The use of AdBlue benefits everyone it helps the environment by reducing the number of harmful emissions created by diesel engines and it helps fleet operators and drivers reduce fuel costs. It is likely that further savings will be made in the future as governments are anticipated to introduce new carbon taxes and penalties for individuals who do not take necessary action to reduce damage impacted on the environment.

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Utilization of Gebel Attaqa Quarry Waste in the manufacture of Single Fast Firing Ceramic Wall Tiles
Author(s)- Amin.Sh.K, Youssef.N.F, El–Mahllawy.M.S, El–Abd.H

ABSTRACT

Extensive and inexpensive quarrying operations have been done on a large scale in Gebel Attaqa area, Eastern Desert of Egypt, where the main source of dolomite deposits is located.  The production line of the working crushers at Gebel Attaqa produces primary building and pavement aggregate types and fine quarry residues as a waste byproduct. These residues are in huge quantities that cannot meet the requirements of the safe disposal which does not exceed 25 % of the total accumulated amount forming a burden on the surrounded environment. So, it was suitable to try to utilize it as a ceramic tile raw material for both economical and environmental purposes, as well as sustainability, by keeping the natural resources for the coming generations.

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Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Effluent Using Bacteria
Author(s)- Manisha Nanda , Dinesh Sharma , Arun Kumar

ABSTRACT

Industrial development results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution. (Fakayode and Onianwa, 2002; Fakayode, 2005). Industrial wastes and emission contain toxic and hazardous substances, most of which are detrimental to human health (Jimena et al.,2008; Ogunfowokan et al.,2005; Rajaram et al.,2008). The key pollutants include heavy metals, chemical wastes and oil spills etc. Heavy metal resistant bacteria have significant role in bioremediation of heavy metals in wastewater. The objective of this work is to study the role of bacteria in removing the heavy metals present in the industrial effluent.Five effluent samples out of nine were selected for this study due to high content of heavy metals. The heavy metals Hg  and Cu were removed by Bacillus sp. The average Hg reduction was 45% and Cu reduction was recorded as 62%. The heavy metals Cd, As and Co were removed by Pseudomonas sp. The average Cd reduction was 56%,  average As reduction was  34% and average Co reduction was recorded as 53%. The heavy metals Cd and Cu were removed by Staphylococcus sp. The average Cd  reduction was 44% and average Cu  reduction was recorded as 34% .

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Gully Erosion in Anambra State, South East Nigeria: Issues and Solution
Author(s)- Obiadi. I.I et al.,

ABSTRACT

Gully erosion in Anambra state, South East Nigeria has continued to pose a challenge to Geoscientist and other environmental scientist. The menace has taken its toll on the socioeconomic wellbeing of the people living in the affected area and the country at large such that lands used for aesthetic, agricultural and industrial purposes, ancestral homes, crops, livestock and other infrastructure are everyday lost to the hazard at alarming rate. Field studies showed that the environmental hazard has remained active over the years, defying control measures put in place by government, communities and individuals – no thanks to the peculiar geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical, climatic and anthropogenic factors at play in the area. This paper reviews the causes and effects of gully erosion in Anambra State in particular and South East Nigeria in general. It also proposes specific and multidisciplinary approach to gully erosion control that will stand the test of time.

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Synthesizing and characterization of chitosan graft co polymer: adsorption studies for Cu (II) and Cr (VI)
Author(s)- Hemalatha. R, Chitra. R, Xavier Raja Rathinam, Sudha.P N

ABSTRACT

Chitosan – g – maleic anhydride (MA) was synthesized by reaction of chitosan with maleic anhydride in N, N - dimethyl formamide. Chitosan – g – maleic anhydride – g – (acrylonitrile) co-polymer was prepared via free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate as the initiator. The effect of polymerization variables including initiator concentration, monomer concentration and reaction temperature on grafting percentage were studied. It was found that the grafting yield and grafting efficiency were increased with increasing the polymerization and then decreased. The grafting was maximum at 1.4 g of initiator (CAN), 2 g of the monomer (acrylonitrile) at 70 °C. The co polymer obtained was confirmed by FTIR, XRD, TGA and DSC analysis. This graft co polymer was used as an adsorbent in dye effluent treatment. Equilibrium sorption experiments were carried out. Data were tested with three isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin – Radushkevich isotherm model. Their trends of applicability from the R2 values follows the order Freundlich > Langmuir > D – R.

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Monitoring of Air Pollution using Wireless Sensors – A case study of monitoring air pollution in Nagpur city
Author(s)- Tajne K.M, Rathore S.S, Asutkar G.M

ABSTRACT

The paper presents Wireless sensor network system used to monitor and control the air quality in Nagpur city. Environmental air pollution monitoring system that measures, RSPM (Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter), NOx, and SO2 are proposed.  The traditional air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Pollution Control Department, is extremely expensive. Analytical measuring equipment is costly, time and power consuming, and can seldom be used for air quality reporting in real time.

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Biobleaching of wheat straw rich-soda pulp by the application of thermophilic mannanase from Bacillus sp. MG-33
Author(s)- Meenakshi, Gursharan Singh, Gurinder Singh Hoondal

ABSTRACT

The paper presents Wireless sensor network system used to monitor and control the air quality in Nagpur city. Environmental air pollution monitoring system that measures, RSPM (Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter), NOx, and SO2 are proposed.  The traditional air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Pollution Control Department, is extremely expensive. Analytical measuring equipment is costly, time and power consuming, and can seldom be used for air quality reporting in real time.

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Assessment of underground water quality in North Eastern region of India: A case study of Agartala City
Author(s)- Paul Supantha, Mishra Umesh

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to assess the quality of underground water using the concept of information entropy and Pearson correlation matrix. The area chosen for this study was a remote city named Agartala situated in the industrially underdeveloped state of Tripura in the north-eastern zone of India. The various physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater tested include pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, turbidity, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, Mg and total hardness (TH). Total 22 samples were collected from the study area and each sample was analysed for 11 parameters. Then a quality rating scale was used to find the water quality index of respective samples from each site. Ground water is here severely polluted due to unusual high concentration of iron with value as high as 28.5mg/L found in some sites. Pearson correlation matrix was formed for all the sample size. Results revealed that ground water is unfit for either drinking or agricultural purpose.

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Biomonitoring of pollution in river Sutlej
Author(s)- Jindal.R, Sharma.C

ABSTRACT

Biomonitoring of river Sutlej was conducted at S1 (Ropar Head Works), S2 (U/S of Budha Nallah at Phillaour), and S3 (D/S of Budha Nallah in district Ludhiana (Pb.). Total 43 species of phytoplankton and 41 species of zooplankton were recorded. Simpson and Shannon-Wiener species diversity indices for three stations have been calculated. The order of degree of plankton abundance in the different stretches of the river was S2 > S1 > S3, whereas species diversity was S1 > S2 > S3.             On the basis of pollution load and Palmer’s algal index, S1 could be designated as oligo-mesosaprobic, S2 as meso-polysaprobic and S3 as polysaprobic. On the basis of the absence, frequency of appearance and disappearance and abundance or organisms in relation to saprobity, different species were designated as bioindicators of pollution. Organisms like Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlamydomonas sp., Closterium acerosum, Euglena viridis, Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palea, Oscillatoria brevis, Spirulina sp., Stigeoclonium tenue and Synedra ulna among phytoplankton, and forms like Aspidisca sp., Bodo sp., Brachionus angularis, Colpoda sp., larvae of Chironomus sp.and Eristalis tenax, Daphnia pulex, Mesocyclops sp., Tubifex tubifex, Rotaria rotatoria and Stylonychia sp. were found to be tolerant to polysaprobic conditions. On the basis of water quality standards given by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the water quality was between ‘A-B’ at S1, ‘B-C’ at S2, and ‘D-E’ at S3.

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Assessment of the quality of revegetated soil near an active goldmine in southwestern Ghana
Author(s)- Afrifa, E.K, Armah, F. A, Pappoe, A.N. M, Essandoh, P. K

ABSTRACT

This study presents an assessment of soil quality of revegetated locations within the catchment of a goldmine, using the index of geo-accumulation, enrichment factor and multivariate statistics. Fourteen composite soil samples were analysed for the following parameters: Mn, Cd, Pb, Fe As, pH, organic carbon, organic matter, available potassium and phosphorous, total nitrogen, total exchangeable base, exchangeable acidity, effective cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The results indicate that all locations except one were practically uncontaminated with Fe. Three locations were practically uncontaminated with Mn, whereas all other locations were uncontaminated to moderately-contaminated. Principal component and cluster analyses indicate that most members form one cluster suggesting uniformity in the degree of impacts on the samples with regard to the parameters analyzed; and further signifying that the impacts possibly originate from a common source. 93% of the locations recorded low to very low levels of nitrogen (0.04-0.14mg/kg). 15% of the soils show medium levels of available phosphorous (8.45-9.81mg/kg) while the other locations (85%) show very low levels (0.01-1.59mg/kg), an indication that most of the soils are phosphorous deficient. The mean ECEC was 8.5meq/100g and ranged from 3.66meq/100g to 17.12meq/100g. 28% of locations recorded less than 5meq/100g CEC, which is the minimum level for adequate exchange capacity according to the Ghana soil fertility capacity classification. Though the heavy metal concentrations in the soil do not pose any significant risks to agronomic activities, the nutrient / fertility status is low to medium. There will therefore be the need to fertilize to correct the various nutrient deficiencies prior to the commencement of agronomic activities.

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Heavy metals concentrations in vegetables grown in the vicinity of the closed dumpsite
Author(s)- Afrifa, E.K, Armah, F. A, Pappoe, A.N. M, Essandoh, P. K

ABSTRACT

Levels of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc and copper in five different edible vegetables, Amaranthus blitum, Vigna unguiculata, Ipomea batata, Solanum nigrum and Cucurbita maxima grown along the slopes of the closed dumpsite were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The extraction of heavy metals from the vegetables was done by dry ashing methods and data were analysed using Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excel computer packages. Results obtained for five heavy metals in vegetables ranged between 0.28 and 1.50 mg/kg dw for cadmium; 0.49 and 20.65 mg/kg dw for lead; 1.15 and 29.39 mg/kg dw for chromium; 18.61 and 122.88 mg/kg dw for zinc and 3.96 and 22.47 mg/kg dw for copper. The levels of Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd were above the permissible levels of heavy metals in food as per FAO/WHO guidelines and Tanzania Bureau of Standards (TBS) standards. This implies that vegetables grown along the closed Mtoni dumpsite are not suitable for human consumption. This study highlights the potential risks involved in the cultivation and consumption of vegetables on plots along the dumpsites and irrigated with water contaminated with leachates effluents, a practice which may place at risk the health of the urban population who consume these vegetables.

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Bioremediation potential of three acclimated bacteria with reference to heavy metal removal from waste
Author(s)- Ashok Kumar, B.S. Bisht, V.D. Joshi

ABSTRACT

In the context of bioremediation, solubilization of metal contaminants serves a means of their removal from solid matrices, such as soils, sediments, dumps and other solid industrial wastes. In the present study, three bacterial species Staphylococcus sp, Streptomyces sp and Flavobacterium sp were acclimatized for heavy metal removal.The waste samples (solid and liquid waste) were collected from six cities viz. Dehradun, Rishikesh, Hardwar, Mussoorie, Kashipur, and Roorkee as per standard method given by APHA 1998. These waste samples were used for bioremediation by the acclimated bacteria. Staphylococcus sp. and Streptomyces sp. biosorbed the three metals viz. chromium copper and lead while Flavobacterium sp. biosorbed only two metals copper and cadmium with very low efficiency. The bioremediation potential of Staphylococcus sp. was 42%, 45% and 82.6% for copper, chromium and lead respectively.  In case of Streptomyces sp, it was potent for chromium removal, the potency order was Cr>>Pd>Cu while the bioremediation potential was 18%, 72% and 32.5% for copper, chromium and lead respectively. The third acclimated bacterium Flavobacterium sp was a week bioremediation agent. It reduced copper and cadmium metals with 20.3% and 25% respectively. It was concluded from the above study that Streptomyces sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were very potent to remove chromium and lead heavy metals form the waste. The acclimated bacteria adapted to various resistance and catabolic potentials. This catabolic potential of microbes is enormously advantageous to mankind for achieving a cleaner and healthier environment through bioremediation.

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Study of Zinc Chloride Induced Changes in Biochemical and Water Quality Parameters with Reference to Eichhornia crassipes
Author(s)- Borker A. R, Mane A.V, Borker T. M , Pathade G. R. ,Saratale G. D.

ABSTRACT

The present investigation was aimed to assess the effect of zinc chloride on some biochemical parameters and capacity of zinc uptake by floating aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes. Initially the effects of increasing zinc concentration on the growth of E. crassipes including root length, leaf area and biomass production was studied. Zinc was accumulated in increasing order in the plants treated with increasing concentration of zinc chloride and shows maximum efficiency of accumulation of Zn++ up to 75 ppm present in the solution. At higher zinc chloride (75 ppm) concentration chlorophyll content of E. crassipes is slightly affected whereas increase in the carotenoid, polyphenol and proline content was observed. The effect of zinc concentration on antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase and peroxidase of E. crassipes were also investigated. Water quality analysis with reference to electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, hardness, sodium and potassium content were systematically investigated. COD as well as BOD content of water increased in all the sets with increase in the concentration which might be closely associated with the external addition of zinc chloride and definitely due to root exudates, degrading plant parts. The maximum values of bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Zn was 545.4, suggesting that water hyacinth was a moderate accumulator of Zn and could be used to treat fresh waters and industrial wastewater contaminated with zinc concentrations.

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Assessment of drinking water quality: A case study of Ambala cantonment area, Haryana, India
Author(s)- Chadetrik Rout, Arabinda Sharma

ABSTRACT

Water is a vital resource for human survival. In the present study, the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater of Ambala Cantonment area were assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 26 water samples were collected from deep aquifer based tube wells from different parts of Ambala Cantonment area. In order to assess the ground water quality, the water samples were analyzed for different physico-chemical properties, e.g., pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), calcium, magnesium, total harness (TH), sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity (TA), chloride, fluoride and sulphate concentrations. The results were compared with the standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). All the physio-chemical parameters were found to be in the prescribed permissible limit. The correlation matrix was also calculated for different parameters of drinking water.  From the pH values it is clear that the ground water of the study area is alkaline in nature and the total hardness varies in between 116.6-129.4 mg/l, which indicates that water in the deep aquifer is moderately hard. Hence it is suggested to the cantonment localities to soften the tube well water before consumption.

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Economic activities decrease biodiversity in Hakaluki haor, the largest inland fresh water ecosystem in Bangladesh
Author(s)- Islam. M, Saha. M, Rahman. M

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to investigate the economic activities in Hakaluki haor and their impact on haor ecosystem. The study revealed that three categories of land are prevalent in Hakaluki haor including agricultural land, beels (the deepest part of haor) and kandas (the outer portion of the haor) comprising 21%, 25% and 54% of the total land area of Hakaluki haor (18386ha) respectively. The socio-economic condition of surrounding people is poor. The mean annual household income was calculated to be Tk.81375 (Tk.70=1US Dollar) where agriculture is the main occupation of 36% households. Agriculture, grazing, and fishing are the main economic activities involving 74%, 93% and 65% households respectively. Average annual income per household from fish capture, fish culture and fish trading are Tk. 13570, Tk. 8716 and Tk. 30000 respectively and about half of the households are involved in fish capture. 91% of households think that over exploitation of resources and existing management system are the main threats for Hakaluki haor. Consequently the natural resources are being depleted day by day along with a considerable loss in biological diversity. Though a number of non-governmental organizations are working for haor management, their efforts were not found effective to conserve haor resources. Development of a comprehensive and sustainable management strategy is an urgent need to protect the natural resources form further degradation.  

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Lung function decline: A cohort study in a population exposed to coal dust
Author(s)- Minakshi Bhattacharjee, Unni.B.G,  S. Das,  M. Deka,Wann.S.B

ABSTRACT

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), is characterized by coughing, shortness of breath, sputum production, rapid breathing, wheezing, and weight loss due to the energy required for labored breathing. COPD includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema chronic bronchitis - inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes emphysema - permanent destruction of the alveoli. Chronic respiratory diseases have a pre-eminent role in the health conditions of people residing near coalmine areas with implications for morbidity and excess mortality from specific causes. Atmospheric pollution from anthropogenic sources such as coal mining, industrial sources is a serious worldwide concern as it is associated with adverse health effects.The aim of this study was to find a correlation between coal dust and reductions in lung function. An environmental health survey was conducted in and around the surrounding areas of opencast coal mine, Tirap to determine the prevalence of various respiratory symptoms and to assess pulmonary function among the villagers. Although cigarette smoking is the main environmental risk factor, only about 15% of smokers develop clinically significant disease suggesting other influences on disease expression. We screened  412 individuals during surveys at the coal mine site, Assam to find out possible occurrences of COPD and associated environmental risk factors, mainly coal dust exposure. Lung function test was done with a portable spirometer. COPD was diagnosed on the basis ATS guidelines. The subjects were categorized into COPD (Smokers and Non-Smokers) and Non-COPD (Smokers and Non-Smokers). Air quality was monitored using Respirable Dust Sampler and analyzed for Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), SO2 and NO2.Coal dust exposure was a potential factor in development of COPD.

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Assessment of ground water quality characteristics and Water Quality Index (WQI) of Bidar city and its industrial area, Karnataka State, India
Author(s)- Shivasharanappa et al.,

ABSTRACT

The present work is aimed at assessing the water quality index (WQI) for the ground water of Bidar city and its industrial area. The groundwater samples of all the 35 wards were collected and subjected for a comprehensive physicochemical analysis. For calculating the WQI, the following 17 parameters have been considered viz., pH, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, iron, fluoride, sodium, potassium, alkalinity, manganese, dissolved oxygen, total solids & zinc. The results analyzed (by WQI method) have been used to suggest models for predicting water quality. The analysis reveals that the groundwater quality status of the study area is excellent, but it also needs to be protected from the perils of future contamination by giving certain degree of treatment viz., disinfection.

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Evaluation and assessment of drinking water quality in Krishnarajanagara town of Mysore district, Karnataka
Author(s)- Shivaraju H.P, Sowmya.K.M

ABSTRACT

Drinking water treatment and its healthy supply to the public is the big task at town level now a day. Despite massive outlays for drinking water and sanitation in India, access to safe drinking water remains a challenge. This paper aims to the assessment of drinking water quality and sanitation situation in Krishnarajanagara town in terms of water supply system. The physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis of supplied water for the drinking purposes in the town was carried out. Determination of water quality parameters were carried out at both source level (treatment station) and distribution level (residences) to know the status of drinking water supply system in the town. Residential chloride concentration present in the drinking water samples was determined at distribution level. Physico-chemical parameters of all the drinking water samples were within permissible limit and safe for drinking. Bacteriological analysis showed that total bacterial contamination of all the drinking water samples at the distribution level, due to contamination of drainage waste water.  This paper tried to highlight the emerging concerns and recommendations for the public water supply system in the town.

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Impact of climate variability on road transport in Warri Metropolis
Author(s)- Ojeh V.N, Ojoh C.O

ABSTRACT

This study examined the variability of climate on road transport in Warri metropolis. To achieve this, the study generated data from archival records from the meteorological agency and National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW). Climate data was collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency, Warri and average cost of transportation from NURTW diary. The data were analysed using the Multiple Regression. From the study, rainfall in Warri and environs has increased over the years (1960-2010) by 199.85mm. Temperatures for the 30years (1960-2010) period were high with an increase of 1.38oC and a mean of 26.420C. The highest and lowest mean annual temperature values of 32.830C and 26.420C in 2010 and 1974 respectively. Thus, if this warming continues there will be a risk of between 1.4oC and an urban warming of 4.18oC, indicating climate change. There is a significant relationship between transport cost and climate (rainfall, temperature and humidity) in Warri metropolis which is evident at F value of 37.397 which is greater than the critical table value of 4.07, which implied that the model is significant and thus, transport cost in Warri metropolis is significantly dependent on rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. It is anticipated that an increase in rainfall results to a corresponding increase in the cost of transport, it is therefore recommended that transportation plans and designs should, therefore, be carefully considered and well informed by a range of factors, including consideration of climate variability and change.

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Diatoms as indicators of water quality deterioration in the estuaries of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts of Karnataka
Author(s)- Shruthi M. S, Sushanth V. R, Rajashekhar M

ABSTRACT

The seasonal variation in physicochemical properties and distribution of diatom species was studied at estuaries of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts for a period of one year (October 2009 to September 2010). The study revealed that the estuarine zone was significantly influenced by pollution due to anthropogenic and organic wastes, industrial effluent discharges and improper sanitation measures. Habitat destruction due to sand mining and urbanization was noticed. The nutrient level showed a significant raise during monsoon in all the study areas. Distribution of members of diatom species was studied which revealed that percentage of different species showed abrupt changes with the variations in the water quality. Diatom species like Achnanthus brevipes, Gomphonema parvulum, Cymbella tumida, Melosira sp., Cyclotella sp.,play an important role in the indication of deterioration of water quality and act as bioindicatiors in the aquatic pollution. Estuaries are an irreplaceable natural resource that must be managed carefully for ecological sustenance. Using bioindicators as an early warning of deterioration of an ecosystem can help sustain critical resources.

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Seasonal Variations in Zooplankton Diversity of Railway Pond, Sasaram, Bihar
Author(s)- Pramod Kumar, Wanganeo A, Wanganeo R, Fozia Sonaullah

ABSTRACT

An ecological study on a tropical pond situated in the centre of the Sasaram city of Bihar, was conducted with special reference to Zooplankton diversity in relation to trophic status. In all 76 zooplankton species recorded belonged to Protozoa, Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda. Out of 76 species, 9 species belonged to Protozoa, 37 species to Rotifera, 15 species to Cladocera, 12 species to Copepoda and only 3 species to Ostracoda. The pond is mainly used for regular inflow of domestic wastes water. During the winter season maximum zooplankton diversity was recorded which was mainly dominated by Rotifer population, thus revealing its eutrophic nature. High turbidity observed as a major factor which restricts growth of the planktonic population during monsoon season.

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Why Environment is a Systems Science: A Commentary
Author(s)- Sen R, Chakrabarti S

ABSTRACT

Systems theory emphasizes the value of viewing any system as a whole, of gaining a perspective on the entire entity before examining its parts. Environment is a natural science, constituted of a set of components that work together for the overall image/objective of the whole. It is a reflection of the mental frame what we see in the world, a world view whereby we see the entity as a whole with its componental fits and relationships. Environment is a quantum expression; hence there is nothing final in its understanding. It is a science exploring the inter-woven secrets of the world. Thus it has a systems outlook and clarifies perceptions of the reality.

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Effect of Lipase in Biodegrading Polybutylene Succinate
Author(s)- Asheeba S.T, Decca Raman M, Shehnaz Begum T, Devarajan Sathishkumar

ABSTRACT

In this present investigation the microorganism Pseudomonas flourescens and Bacillus subtiliscapable of producing Lipase and degrading poly Butylene Succinate was isolated and screened using PBS enrichment medium and Tributyrin medium. Further the enzyme Lipase was isolated and purified using Ammonium Sulphate precipitation, DEAE cellulose and Sephadex column chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was found to be increasing at each step of purification. Optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme was recorded as 7 and 37°C.  A weight loss of 30%, 35% and 50% was seen in case of PBS films when treated with lipase (Pseudomonas flourescens and Bacillus subtilis, commercial) which reflects their specificity towards their substrate. The extent of degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM analysis where different sized eruptions were seen in PBS films when inoculated with Lipase from different sources suggesting that Lipase has the specificity towards the substrate PBS in biodegradation.

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Studies on Potassium content in two root crops under Nitrogen fertilization
Author(s)- Akhtar Ina, Seema Sahay, Firoz.M

ABSTRACT

In two field trials conducted at Aligarh (India), K content was studied in two varieties each of radish and turnip, grown under three regimes of nitrogen (100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1). The number of leaves and dry matter content of tops and roots of both crops increased with increasing doses of N. With the increase of N fertilizer, radish biomass production, economic output and the root yield increased with the increase of economic output per kg of nitrogen from the negative to a positive correlation, and the growth yield is also growing. Appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased the plant's largest leaf length, maximum number of photosynthetic leaves, tops and root dry matter accumulation in various organs in radish and turnip varieties, showed a positive correlation between nitrogen deficiencies reduced dry matter accumulation amount. K content also increased with increasing doses of N, with 200 kg ha-1 giving the highest value. Local variety of each crop possessed comparatively less K content. Maximum K content was noted in Pusa Rashmi (radish) and Snow Ball (turnip) grown with 200 kg ha-1. At early stage, K content was more in tops, but as the plants grew the content became higher in roots.

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Biodiesel Spentwash: Characterization, Amelioration and its effect on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Biochemical Parameters of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Author(s)- Mohana.V.S, Balakrishna Gowda, Pramila.C.K, Prasanna.K.T

ABSTRACT

A laboratory study was conducted to characterize the biodiesel spentwash samples, amelioration by physical and chemical methods to improve the quality and to know the effects of treated and untreated biodiesel spentwash on seed germination, seedling growth, dry matter production and biochemical parameters of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). The biodiesel spentwash samples were collected from biodiesel production unit of UAS, Bangalore and used for the study. Different ameliorative methods were followed to treat the spentwash samples which include sand filtration, chemical coagulation etc., the treated and untreated spentwash samples were used for the germination experiments. Treated spentwash samples showed very good response in seed germination and other growth parameters, whereas the untreated (Raw Biodiesel Spentwash) samples showed inhibitory effects. The study suggests that biodiesel spentwash can be safely used for irrigation after proper treatments.

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Small-scale Gold Mining in the Ambalanga Catchment, Philippines: Its Control on Mercury Methylation in Stream Sediments
Author(s)- Corpus, T.J., David, C.P., Murao, S., Maglambayan, V.

ABSTRACT

Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have been found in the Ambalanga Catchment, Benguet, where small-scale gold mining (SSM) is the main source of livelihood. To determine the distribution of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg), and the possible physical controls on Hg methylation in the watershed, stream sediment sampling in the eight subbasins of the Ambalanga Catchment was conducted on two periods: low-flow (LF) stage in November 2001 and high-flow (HF) stage in July 2003. Results revealed high THg concentrations in three subbasins (Acupan, Dalicno, and Sangilo) in the 2001 period and six subbasins (Acupan, Dalicno, Sangilo, Surong, Gold Creek, and Upper Ambalanga) in 2003. The increase in contaminated subbasins is attributed to the increase in river discharge which resulted in increased erosion of contaminated sediments. Significantly high concentrations of MeHg were found in two subbasins (Acupan and Lucbuban) in 2001 and four subbasins (Acupan, Dalicno, Sangilo, and Upper Ambalanga) in 2003. The high MeHg may be driven by the enhancement of the methylation process in areas with large amounts of fine-grained sediments that accumulated in lower hydrologic gradient (and ensuing increased organic activity) close to and at some distance downstream from the point sources.

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Toxic effects of Carbofuran on Duttaphrynus Melanostictus Larvae 
Author(s)- Jayatillake.B.A.D.M.C, Wijesinghe.M.R, Ratnasooriya.W.D, Lakraj G.P

ABSTRACT

This study investigated effects of the carbamate pesticide carbofuran on larvae of the Asian Common Toad Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Tadpoles were continuously exposed to four concentrations of carbofuran (50 - 500 µgl-1) for 15 days during which mortality, growth, development, and swimming activity were monitored. In a separate trial, the liver and tail muscle tissues were examined for histopathological changes after one week of exposure to 250 and 500 µgl-1. The study revealed that carbofuran at the tested concentrations induced significantly high levels of mortality in D. melanostictus tadpoles. Trends in mortality depicted a bell-shaped curve indicating a hormetic response. The LC50 1 - 15 days ranged from 1865 – 152 µgl-1. Effects on growth, development and swimming were transient. A few tadpoles exposed to 250 µgl-1 and above showed swelling of the head region. Exposure to carbofuran also caused severe histological alterations in the tail muscle tissues, while the liver tissue was also affected, but to a lesser extent. Greater vacuolation in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilations and the formation of bile plugs were observed in the liver of treated larvae whilst tail muscles were substantially disintegrated as a result of exposure to carbofuran. The observed harmful effects induced by carbofuran in the present study suggest that D. melanostictus populations may face detrimental consequences as a result of exposure to this pesticide.

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International environmental law: environmental performance reporting and monitoring practice
Author(s)- Nafiseh Jafarzadeh

ABSTRACT

Current environmental changes are complex and global in both their causes and consequences. Widespread concern over the state of the environment has resulted in the need for global monitoring and databases of information for both detecting trends and improving the science-policy connection. Transparent environmental information and standardised reporting are pre-requisites for improved environmental governance. Indeed scientific assessments, measuring, reporting and monitoring lead to good governance and sound management at different levels. A range of Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) also require compliance measures such as information gathering, reporting and monitoring. Nevertheless, the lack of standardised reporting requirements, measurement criteria, reliable data and global monitoring programs, is a current environmental cross-cutting issue that affects the success of international environmental law as well as the achievement of broader environmental goals. This article considers the international laws, tools and processes regarding reporting and monitoring practices, identifies existing weaknesses and outlines possible strategies to overcome challenges and enhance the global governance of the environment.

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Implication of Solarization against Soil -borne fusaria in leguminous crop fields in Kalli paschim village in Lucknow, India: A Tropical Country
Author(s)- Ankita Shukla, Dwivedi.S.K

ABSTRACT

Soil solarisation is a technique to trap sun’s energy helps to increase the temperature of the soil .This higher temperature is unsuitable for most of the plant pathogens results decreased in their population. It’s a very beneficial technique for management of pathogen microbes in tropical countries where sunlight is available for a long period in a day time. Soil solarisation also helps to increases the productivity of soil both by suppressing the pathogens as well as by increasing the metabolic rate of soil materials, which helps to enhance the fertility of the soil. This procedure is also enhancing the bulk and bustle of antagonistic microbes.  The purpose of present study is to test the effect of soil solarization on population dynamics of two pathogenic soil fusaria i.e. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri and fusarium udum causing wilt in chickpea and pigeonpea crops. All treatment comprises treated plots and untreated (control) plots at different depth i.e. 5, 10 and 15 cm on 7, 14 and 21st days of experiment. It is found  that in solarized plots the population of pathogens significantly reduced in compared to control plot. Significant increase in temperature is found in solarized plots in comparison to control with increase in days of experiment.

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A strategic approach to Environmental Management Systems (EMS): An assessment of Sustainability in EMS to move toward Sustainability
Author(s)- Saha. P. K, Seal. L

ABSTRACT

With many other management tools, Environmental Management Systems (EMS) is becoming very popular in several industries and corporate sectors in all over the world. The drastic use of EMS is expected to revise in its environmental management services in order to fulfill the actual technical and environmental objectives in the company. Research shows, why environmental management systems are failed to prescribe technical and environmental objectives and to satisfy those needs how it might be more successful in terms of sustainability. Hence the current study is saying that environmental management systems are not strategic; while they tend to reactively fix issues contingent upon their occurrence and may miss opportunities to avoid problems before they occur.  Further, environmental management itself is seen in isolation of a socio-ecological context, which makes environmental management lose ground and operate in a virtual vacuum. The current study shows about the way of sustainability integration into environmental management systems directed by those possibilities. In the current analysis of the study, a framework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD) and other methods integrating “backcasting from principles of sustainability”– has been used.  The use of tools not only exemplifies modern sustainability gaps but also gives a tangible set of directions to integrate sustainability in the existing environmental management systems.

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Chronic arsenic toxicity and it’s relation with nutritional status: A Case Study in Purabasthali-II, Burdwan, West Bengal, India
Author(s)- Mondal.N.K, Roy.P, Das.B, Datta.J.K

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and exposure through environmental, occupational and medicinal sources. Exposure through drinking water is major public health problem affecting most of the areas of our states, one such arsenic affected area is Purabasthali block-II, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Reviewed of literature indicates that the chronic arsenic exposure increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous non-cancerous effects including diabetes, skin diseases, chronic cough, and toxic effects on liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, and peripheral and central nervous systems. Present survey also shows similar diseases pattern mostly skin disease and hair falling along with other symptoms. The situation is particularly severe in places where low socioeconomics status, poor literacy and malnutrition are predominant. Early stage of detection and enhancement of awareness and subsequent improvement of nutritional status can help to relief to the affected population. The present article deals with the arsenic predominance and also establishes the relation between water depth and intensity at arsenic toxicities, subsequently their detoxification through normal balance diet.

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Chronic arsenic toxicity and it’s relation with nutritional status: A Case Study in Purabasthali-II, Burdwan, West Bengal, India
Author(s)- Mondal.N.K, Roy.P, Das.B, Datta.J.K

ABSTRACT

Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and exposure through environmental, occupational and medicinal sources. Exposure through drinking water is major public health problem affecting most of the areas of our states, one such arsenic affected area is Purabasthali block-II, Burdwan, West Bengal, India. Reviewed of literature indicates that the chronic arsenic exposure increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous non-cancerous effects including diabetes, skin diseases, chronic cough, and toxic effects on liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, and peripheral and central nervous systems. Present survey also shows similar diseases pattern mostly skin disease and hair falling along with other symptoms. The situation is particularly severe in places where low socioeconomics status, poor literacy and malnutrition are predominant. Early stage of detection and enhancement of awareness and subsequent improvement of nutritional status can help to relief to the affected population. The present article deals with the arsenic predominance and also establishes the relation between water depth and intensity at arsenic toxicities, subsequently their detoxification through normal balance diet.

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Electrochemical behaviour of the  Acharicide  Methiocarb   and   its residues  in soil and water samples
Author(s)- Rajasekhar reddy.S, Chandramohan.K, Ravindranath babu.T, Subrahmanyam.K

ABSTRACT

A selective  and  sensitive  differential  pulse  adsorptive stripping Volta metric  method   used for  the determination of methiocarb by using HMDE in universal buffer of pH range 2.0 to 6.0. The peak observed for the methiocarb  are  attributed  to  the  reduction  of  carbonyl  group  and  showed  to  be  pH  4.0.  A systematic study of various experimental conditions, such as pH, accumulation potential, accumulationtime and scan rate were studied. The relationship between peak current  and methiocarb concentrations was linear within the concentration range of 1.0 x 10-5M to 1.0 x 10-9M. The lower detection was limit found to be 1.0 x 10-8M. The correlation coefficient and relative standard deviation obtained using the above procedure are found to be 0.992 and 1.38 % respectively.The  method  is  simple,  sensitive  and  free  from interferences of other pesticides. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of methiocarb  in water and soil samples.

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