Open Access - Abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

VOLUME 2, NO 2 - 2011- Page 1

CONTENTS

Evaluation of effect of drains on water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city using multivariate statistical techniques
Author(s)- Srivastava Shivani, Srivastava Anukool, Negi M.P.S, Tandon .P.K

ABSTRACT

World over, drains are the main source of water pollution especially for rivers flowing within the city. These drains generally carry industrial effluent, domestic waste, sewage, and medicinal waste results in pooring the water quality. The extent to which these drains pollute the water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city is not well documented yet.  The present study thus evaluates the effect of 26 drains on water quality of river Gomti in Lucknow city, which submerged from cis side (14 drains) and Trans side (12 drains). For this, 13 necessary physico-chemical parameters from all drains were estimated as per standard methods and evaluated statistically.  The results revealed that most of the indicator parameters are above the permissible limits of BIS and WHO standards. The mean level of total solid, total dissolve solids, total suspended solids, conductivity, and sulphate at trans side was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than the cis side. Among drains, the kukrial drain (mid of the city) is the highest polluted drain while Gaughat the least (upstream). The higher level of pollutants polluting the water quality of river Gomti, disturbing the ecology of river and affecting human health directly and indirectly.

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Comparative Study on Hepatoprotective activity of Aegle marmelos and Eclipta alba against alcohol induced in albino rats
Author(s)- Arun.K, Balasubramanian.U

ABSTRACT

The present study suggest that, Aegle marmelos and Eclipta alba were shows the significant variations in the observed biochemical parameters. The level of TBARS in ethanol intoxicated rats increased two fold when compared with the control animals. The levels of GSH, SOD and CAT decreased significantly in the ethanol intoxicated rats. The level of GPx was increased in the ethanol intoxicated rats. The value of vitamin E in both plasma and liver samples were less when compared with the control animals. Similarly, the value of vitamin C was also showed decreased level in plasma. Serum iron and copper levels were elevated to a higher level. The therapeutic administrations of Aegle marmelos and Eclipta alba leaves fine powder greatly change the biochemical parameters in the ethanol intoxicated rats and maintained well to the normal level. These results clearly suggest that, the Aegle marmelos and Eclipta alba have enormous hepatoprotective value. Among the two plants Aegle marmelos has slightly high activity as compare toEclipta alba. These herbal drugs have equivalent therapeutic value with the standards drug Silymarin. Moreover, it is very important to study the specific phytochemical compounds responsible for this hepatoprotective effect.

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Improving multiple linear regression model using principal component analysis for predicting PM10 concentration in Seberang Prai, Pulau Pinang
Author(s)- Ul-Saufie A.Z, Yahya A.S, Ramli N.A

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, particulate matter is one of the prevalent pollutants recorded throughout Malaysia. The development of models to predict particulate matter less than and equal 10 micrometers (PM10) concentration is thus very useful because it can provide early warning to the population and for input into decision regarding abatement measures and air quality management. The aim of this study was to improve the predictive power of multiple linear regression models using principal components as input for predicting PM10 concentration for the next day. The developed model was compared with multiple linear regression models. Performance indicator such as Prediction Accuracy (PA), Coefficient of Determination (R2), Index of Agreement (IA), Normalised Absolute Error (NAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to measure the accuracy of the models. Results showed that the use of principal component as inputs improved multiple linear regression models prediction by reducing their complexity and eliminating data collinearity.

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Histological Studies on the Cadmium Chloride Exposed Air-Breathing Fish, Heteropnuestes fossilis (Bloch) With Special Reference to Ovaries
Author(s)- Shivani Sharma, Susan Manhor, Qureshi.T.A., Pinky Kaur, Dar.B.A

ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to evaluate the sub-lethal effect of cadmium chloride in the ovaries of the air-breathing fish, Heteropnuestes fossilis which were kept in aqueous solution of cadmium chloride of two sub-lethal concentrations of 6mg/l and 9mg/l for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histopathological effect of CdCl2 in ovaries is characterised by enlarged oocytes after 15 days of 6 mg/l exposure and degeneration of egg envelope after 30 days. After 45 days the atretic follicles appeared and nucleoi got scattered. In 9 mg/l concentration after 15 days, ovary wall got slightly thin and ruptured whereas enlarged interfollicular spaces were observed after 30 days and after 45 days egg envelopes got degenerated.

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Phytoremediation of Chromium contaminated soil using Sorghum plant
Author(s)- Revathi.K, Haribabu.T.E, Sudha. P.N

ABSTRACT

Industrial waste is one of the most important sources of contamination in the surface environment. The impact of heavy metals in soils, plants, animals and humans is due to the unabated expansion of toxic effects. The toxic wastes generated are treated by physico-chemical processes in which “Bioremediation” is the microbial clean up approach. Plant-based remediation (Phytoremediation) is an emerging biotechnological tool, for cleaning metal polluted or contaminated soil. The present study deals with phytoremediation of Chromium metal polluted soil of Ranipet Tanneries utilizing Sorghum plant, which is one of the best “Hyper-accumulators” for the phytoremediation of metal polluted sites. The impact of chromium on the biomass and chlorophyll content and also the effect of addition of biosolids like vermicompost on the bioaccumulation efficiency of the plant were investigated. The results indicated that there is significant reduction of biomass of the plant with increased dosage of chromium. It is also observed that addition of vermicompost to the contaminated soil improves the biomass of the plants thus making room for more bioaccumulation. Pytoremediation is found to be cost-effective and highly efficient in remediating the heavy metal polluted sites.

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An evaluation of forest conservation perceptions after a decade of community conservation in Afadjato-Agumatsa, Ghana
Author(s)- Erasmus H. Owusu, Edem K. Ekpe

ABSTRACT

Perceptions of communities about natural resource conservation are important intermediate outcomes of conservation interventions.  This is especially important in community-based natural resource management regimes, where they need to be assessed before the ultimate outcome of conserved natural resources and biodiversity.  The assessments of these perceptions are also very important for conservation management purposes.  Selected communities in the Afadjato-Agumatsa area in Ghana, West Africa started community forest conservation in 1999 with technical support from a conservation organization as well as financial support from an international agency. At the beginning of the conservation action, forest conservation perceptions were assessed.  In this study, we evaluated the changes in perceptions about forest conservation in three communities living in the Afadjato-Agumatsa area in Ghana, between 1999 and 2009.  The method we used was a qualitative pretest posttest evaluation. We also assessed which socio-economic factors predicted peoples’ perceptions about forest conservation. The results suggest that there has been an overall increase in support for forest conservation in the area expressed by the cultural, natural resource and economic benefits and values from the forests since 1999.  This increase could be influenced by the cultural and economic benefits that the conservation program introduced.  However, some respondents continue to hold reservations about restrictions to the exploitation of natural resources that the conservation program has imposed.  This concern has to be continually managed.

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Assessment of heavy metals and their interrelationships with some physicochemical parameters in Eco-efficient rivers of Himalayan Region
Author(s)- Kansal Ankur,SiddiquiN.A,Gautam Ashutosh

ABSTRACT

Most precious water reservoirs like Himalayan Glaciers, and origin of world famous Himalayan Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna and their tributaries is from Uttarakhand state of India.  Over the years increased industrial activities and urban growth along the rivers and lakes has resulted in increased load over the water bodies. In the present study a comparison of characteristics of water quality with respect to heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb) and their interrelationships with some physiological parameters has been made in the water bodies flowing through the two geographical regions namely Garhwal and Kumaon regions of the Himalayan State of India during year 2010. All observed values of Pb, 02 observation of the Cu, 59 observations of Fe were exceeded with the WHO standard for drinking water 83 observations of Pb, 110 observations of Cu and 59 observations of Fe were found to be exceeded with the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). However none of the observation of Zn was found exceeding with the standard limit. Cu shows highest concentration 7.30 mg/l among all samples and also having higher concentration in water bodies of Kumaon region. All the metals show negative correlation with Dissolved Oxygen and pH. It is concluded that the water bodies of Kumaon region are polluted manifolds due to heavy industrial discharge and untreated sewage disposal.

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Haematology and Haemochemistry of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L. Infected with Bacillus Thurungenses
Author(s)- Anandakumar, M. D, Ann Sandhya Michael

ABSTRACT

Total haemocyte count, differential haemocyte count, changes in nucleus/nucleolar ratios of various haemocytes, as well as haemolymph protein and reducing sugar of fifth instar larvae of Bombyx mori L. inoculated with flacherie were studied. The inoculated worms received 250-300 spores/ml on the third day of fifth instar. The infected larvae showed 15.3% decrease in total haemocyte count (THC) when compared to healthy worms. Prohaemocytes and granular haemocytes, which form the bulk of the total population, were not influenced by Bacillus thurungienses, where as significant increase was observed in differential haemocyte count (DHC) of plasmocytes alone. Bacterial infection also influenced nucleus/nucleolar (N/Nu) ratio of plasmocytes and oenocytoids indicating their role in larval immunity process. Plasma protein and reducing sugars were marginally reduced on infection. The above results were discussed in the light of pathophysiology of silkworm on bacterial infection.

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Effects of repeated burning on woody vegetation structure and composition in a semi-arid southern African savanna
Author(s)- Edson Gandiwa

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated dry season annual hot fires on woody plants in a semi-arid southern African savanna in Zimbabwe. Parts of the National University of Science and Technology (NUST) research fields in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe have been burnt annually in the dry season between 1994 and 2003 in order to control bush encroachment. The present study was carried out in both the burnt and unburnt sites of the NUST research fields consisting of Acacia karroo-Colophospermum mopane vegetation. The study adopted a randomised block design and woody vegetation data were collected from a total of 10 plots. Variables measured and recorded included woody plant height, density, number of stems per plant, proportion of multi-stemmed plants, proportion of dead stems, basal area, fire damage and number of species per plot. The study results indicate that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in woody plant heights, proportion of multi-stemmed plants, proportion of dead stems and basal areas between the burnt and unburnt sites. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in density, number of species per plot and number of stems per plant in woody plants between the burnt and unburnt sites. The study results suggest that repeated dry season annual hot fires leads to thinner and short-stemmed plants in semi-arid savanna ecosystems. Repeated burning also increased the proportion of multi-stemmed plants and proportion of dead stems in the burnt site. Despite burning sections of the study area annually, bush encroachment control has not been effectively achieved. The study findings points to the need of adaptive management strategies in the use of fires in managing vegetation in semi-arid savanna ecosystems.

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Physico-Chemical parameters of Karamana River Water in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India
Author(s)- Sujitha P.C et al.,

ABSTRACT

The study report is discusses about the analysis of various physico-chemical parameters of salinity, TSS, TDS, DO, BOD, turbidity, pH, temperature, alkalinity, hardness and dissolved nutrients of surface water and sediments collected from different points (5 stations) of Karamana River were measured during March and July 2009. The highest temperature (31.0ºC) noticed during pre-monsoon period and no influence of salinity. In the monsoon period, high DO ranges (5.4mg/L) noticed in the water of Karamana River. High BOD observed at Thiruvallam indicated the influence of effluents in these stations. TSS 17mg/L at Manakatukadavu to 40mg/L at Thiruvallam during pre-monsoon and 24mg/L at Manakatukadavu to 60 mg/L at Pallichal during monsoon. TDS in water samples increased from 56mg/L at station 1 to 28mg/L at station 5 during pre-monsoon and from 41mg/L at station 1 to 112mg/L at station 5 the high TDS might be due to the influence of seawater. Total alkalinity observed in the present study is well within the prescribed standards of drinking water (>1 20mg/L). High hardness 12 mg/L) noticed at Karamana near Siva temple during pre-monsoon period. Total Iron concentrations is high as 1.08 to 2.52mg/L in pre-monsoon and 1.51 to 2.24mg/L during monsoon recorded at station 5 might be due to the high rate of surface runoff in waters. Total phosphate value (2.56-2.19mg/kg) at Pallichal showed the deposition of nutrients during monsoon season. The distribution of heterotrophic population was highly fluctuating daring the study and the high counts (417cfu/ml to 524 dfu/ml) during monsoon at Mankattukadavu and Kundamankkadavu.

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Cage culture of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801) in Mandapam Coastal waters (Southeast Coast of India)
Author(s)- Badhul Haq M.A et al.,

ABSTRACT

Of the various culture systems, cage culture is very important and interesting like pond and pen cultures. Cage culture is considered as the proper technology to maximize the sustainable biomass production in a unit area. The cage culture accounts for a very high production of the present day production of many fishes and crustaceans. Thus in this study the groupers were cage cultured for a period of six months in Gulf of Mannar coastal waters and the parameters like body weight and length, biochemical studies and economic analysis were done. The results were showed potential. The average length and weight yield of E.malabaricus harvested at the end of the culture period of 184 days were found to be 319.1mm and 332.8mm length and 646.5gm to 740.5gm weight respectively. The total survival rate of all experimental compartments was 88.66%. The muscle region showed the maximum protein content of 81.6% in compartment A4, and minimum content of 14.4% and 24% in compartment A5&A3.  The maximum carbohydrate level was recorded in compartment A5 (7.5%) and the minimum (2.90% & 3.42%) in compartment A1 andA2.  The maximum lipid content of 4.75% was recorded in compartment A5, and minimum of 2.25% & 2.75% in the A1 compartment. The total net income earned was 2849.97 INR. The results are discussed in detail in the text. The entry of other invasive macro and micro organisms posed a drawback in the culture of this type of experiments which has to be minimized. For a country like India with enormous population, cage culture is most needed intensively in order to meet the future food demands and also to improve the aquaculture business.

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Graphical and statistical approaches to assess the quality of ground water of Sikar city, Rajasthan, India
Author(s)- Radhey Shyam, Kalwania.G.S

ABSTRACT

For hydro-chemical evolution and classification of ground water in southern part of Sikar city, 15 ground water samples have collected and analyzed for different water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, TA, DO, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride with the help of standard  methods recommended by American Public Health Association. The analysis indicated that nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some samples are at alarming state as compared to the WHO standards for drinking purposes, thereby suggesting the need for treatment and precautionary measures for use of the particular ground water. On the basis of graphical and statistical analysis, various dimension of improving water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes have also been suggested.

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Horizontal transmission of  Wolbachia in the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera carnica and its ectoparasite Varroa destructor
Author(s)- Mahesh Pattabhiramaiah, Dorothea Brückner, Reddy, M.S

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that the prevalence of Wolbachia in arthropods is attributable not only to its vertical transmission, but also to its horizontal transfer. Horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in the host/ parasite community was assessed between the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera carnica and its ectoparasite Varroa destructor, because Wolbachia has been implicated in reproductive alterations in many insects. We first report the vectorial horizontal transmission of Wolbachia in these host/ parasite community, detected by diagnostic PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA genes followed by direct sequencing. Identical sequences were found in these host/parasite communities suggesting horizontal transmission of Wolbachia. Interestingly, the infected bees may transmit Wolbachia transovarially making it abundant worldwide.

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Antipathogenic activity of marine Gastropoda (Hemifusus pugilinus) from Pazhayar, South East Coast of India
Author(s)- Dhinakaran A, Sekar.V, Sethubathi, G.V, Suriya.J

ABSTRACT

Marine organisms represent a valuable source of new compounds. The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited source of new active substances in the development of bioactive products. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of antimicrobial activities in the commercially important mollusc species of H. pugilinus. Bioactive compound was extracted using 3 different solvent (water, ethanol and methanol) and it is screened for antibacterial activity against 10 human bacterial pathogens. Methanolic extract showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The maximum inhibition zone was 12 mm against proteus mirabilis. The minimum inhibition zone was 3 mm, against P. mirabilis. These promising results have led us to consider purification of the active compound(s) which may be related to mollusc defense mechanisms.

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Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of a freshwater Catfish, Clarias Batrachus
Author(s)- Bilal Ahmad, Qureshi.T.A, Susan Manohar, Pinky Kaur, Rumysa Khaliq

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride induced histological alterations in the liver and kidney of a freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. The fishes were exposed to 4 ppm (4% of 96 h LC50) and 8 ppm (8% of 96 h LC50) of cadmium chloride for 60 days. The most common changes in liver of fishes at both doses of cadmium chloride were loosening of hepatic tissue, vacuolated cell cytoplasm, enucleation and eccentric nuclei. In the kidney of fishes exposed cadmium chloride were characterized by loosening of haemopoietic tissue, uriniferous tubules have lost their original appearance, vacuolated cytoplasm, degeneration in the epithelial cells of renal tubule, narrowing of the tubular lumen and damaged glomeruli. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of Cadmium chloride caused dose and duration-dependent histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney of Clarias batrachus. The lesions in these vital organs might have resulted in physiologic and metabolic dysregulations. In the long-run, therefore, cadmium chloride exposures to even sublethal concentrations may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

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Classification of radioactive wastes and their derived release limits FROM near surface repository: Proposed approach
Author(s)- Mahmoud N.S, Abdellatif M. M.

ABSTRACT

In Egypt, according to the new Nuclear Law No 7 for 2010, and the presidential decision of establishing nuclear power plants, national authorities with define responsibilities have been designated. Therefore, such authority is improving its technical infrastructure in terms of national processes and systems. Because the basic goal of radioactive waste management is to protect human and environment, the safety features of the waste management system should be considered. To simplify the management processes for the various types of radioactive wastes produced from different uses, a classification system of these wastes should be established. This classification must represent or correlate to the relevant features of their constituent elements. In other words, the construction of system for waste classification desires to simplify and to promote proper management. In case of present work, classification of radioactive wastes based on ALI values is a proposal approach for the near surface disposal. ALI; Annual Limit Intake is defined as the smaller value of intake of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference man that would result in a committed effective dose calculated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ALI values are frequently used to find derived levels of concentrations of radionuclides for the purpose of implementing control measures in practice. ALI is used as indicator for hazard level of radionuclides.

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Assessment of  water quality of River Bandi affected by textile dyeing and printing effluents, Pali, Western Rajasthan, India
Author(s)- Jaya Rathore

ABSTRACT

The water quality of the  Bandi river is under the stress of severe pollution due to discharge of effluents from more than 800 textile dyeing and printing industries located at Pali city. The river carries exclusively industrial effluents throughout the year except in monsoon period. The study revealed that the chemical parameters – COD(993 mg/L), suspended solids (800 mg/L),chloride (1702 mg/L), sulphate (943 mg/L), sodium (2163 mg/L) and Cr+6 (0.15 mg/L) have exceeded the maximum discharge limits laid down by Bureau of Indian Standards. A decrease in concentration of various pollutants downstream Pali during monsoon season was observed due to dilution of industrial waste waters by the flow of fresh water upstream of Pali city.

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Seasonal variation of South China Sea physical characteristics off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from 2002-2010 datasets
Author(s)- Akhir.M.F, Sinha.P.C, Hussain.M.L

ABSTRACT

This study is based on physical oceanographic dataset compilation along the east coast of peninsular Malaysia between 2002 and 2010. Data distribution lies mostly in the months of March/April and September/October, which representing post northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon season accordingly. Composite analysis was conducted and hydrographic condition shows that characteristics during the two specific period differ. Meanwhile, current circulation flow in opposite direction; southward during post monsoon and northward during southwest monsoon. The differences of the sea physical characteristics between the two periods provide a fresh observation toward the region where regional understanding on seasonality is poorly understood.

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Evaluation of water quality, Hydro-geochemistry of confined and Unconfined aquifers and irrigation water quality in Digha Coast of West Bengal, India (A case study)
Author(s)- Anirban K. Chowdhury, Srimanta Gupta

ABSTRACT

Geochemical nature of confined aquifer was earth alkaline with increased portion of alkalis with prevailing bicarbonate, followed by chloro-alkaline disequilibrium type of ion-exchange process. Chemical weathering of rock forming minerals was the major driving force controlling confined aquifer water chemistry. Hydro-geochemistry of unconfined aquifer in post-monsoon season was alkaline with bicarbonate and sulfate-chloride and earth alkaline with increased portion of alkalis with prevailing bicarbonate where as in pre-monsoon season hydro-geochemistry of the unconfined aquifer shifted towards alkaline with sulfate and bicarbonate. Ion exchange process in this aquifer showed complete dominance of base exchange reaction in both the seasons. Chemical weathering and chemical weathering along with evaporation were the two major driving forces controlling the water chemistry of the unconfined aquifer in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons respectively. RSC (residual sodium carbonate), %Na+, SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio and concentration of Cl-, B-, F- in irrigation water revealed that the majority of surface water samples were not good enough for irrigation in pre-monsoon season in comparison to that of post-monsoon season.

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Wastewater Treatment with Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland
Author(s)- Borkar.R.P, Mahatme.P.S

ABSTRACT

Water is one of the most important elements involved in the creation and development of healthy life. Haphazard disposal of untreated wastewater from households as well as institutions and industry is causing severe deterioration of water bodies in many urban areas in the developing world. There are several methods to treat the municipal wastewater for intended use. One of the methods of the treatment is constructed wetland. Constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment has been proven to be effective and sustainable alternative for conventional wastewater treatment technologies. In the present study performance of the fabricated model on which the local Amba Nala effluent characteristics like pH, DO, TS, BOD, COD with and without plant species were studied. The bed was studied for the different substrate conditions i.e. for black cotton soil, sandy soil for the detention time of 3 days, 5 days, 7 days and 9 days. It is observed that the beds with Typha Orientalis (macrophyte plants) produced effluents of better quality than the bed without Typha Orientalis. The result shows reduction of 75% in total solids, 86 % in BOD, 63% in COD using Typha Orientalis andon the other side without Typha Orientalis it was found that there is 70% reduction in total soilids, 62% in BOD and 53% in COD. The planted wetland system shows the better performance than the unplanted system. It is also found that the increasing in the detention period of the wastewater, the removal rate also increases. This study can be extended by setting pilot plant at site.

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Use of Sesame Bran (Industry Byproduct) in the Broiler Chicks Diet and its effects on the performance and Carcass quality characteristics
Author(s)- Abbas Talha E, Ahmed Mohamed E

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of partially replacement of sorghum (Fetrita) with sesame bran in the broiler chicks’ diet, on the performance and carcass quality. The experiment was conducted at the experimental poultry farm (open sided house) of Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences, University of Alneelain, Jebel-Awlia, Khartoum South. A total of ninety, one-day-old unsexed broiler chicks (Hubbard) were assigned into nine pens in groups of ten chicks in a pen, in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 5 weeks (8 – 42 day). Three experimental iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were supplied ad – libitum. 10% of sorghum was replaced with sesame bran + 0.1% of enzyme in the first experimental diet

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Municipal Solid Waste Management at Amravati City - Present practice and future challenges
Author(s)- Khandve. P. V, Rai.R.K

ABSTRACT

The quantity of solid waste produced in city depends on the type of the city, its population, living standards of the residents and degree of commercialization, industrialization and various activities prevailing in the city. Due to rapid growth of population in Amravati municipal corporation area and changing life styles has resulted in increased waste generation. Consequently, waste management has become a key issue needing to be addressed. Amravati city generates about 184.90 tons municipal solid waste per day. The various Solid waste streams in Amravati city include municipal solid waste (households, commercial establishments), biomedical waste (hospitals, dispensaries), industrial waste (industries) and electronic waste (discards from electronic equipments including PCs). Handling of MSW is the responsibility of the Amravati Municipal Corporation (AMC) and Solid waste management strategies adopted by AMC includes management of MSW at compost depot, management of biomedical waste, and implementation of MSW rules 2000. But these present facilities are falling short and hence new Landfill site proposal is sanctioned for AMC. The present paper is based on the study carried out on Solid Waste Management Practice by Amravati Municipal Corporation for Amravati City. The outline of existing situation of solid waste management system, problems associated with the system and the future requirement to handle the up growing situation are discussed.

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Adsorption of Copper (II) and Nickel (II) Ions on Chitin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Binary Blend:  Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies
Author(s)- Hema.S, Kumaran.T. M, Sudha.P.N

ABSTRACT

The presence of toxic heavy metals in electroplating industrial effluent is a pervasive and serious pollution problem. The ability of chitin binary blend as an adsorbent for Cu and Ni ions in aqueous solution was studied. Chitin was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) in the presence of formaldehyde as a cross linking agent. Removal of Cu and Ni has been found to be pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage dependent. Adsorption isotherm studies indicated that the adsorptive behavior of metal ions on chitin/PVA binary blend satisfies Freundlich assumptions and follows pseudo second order kinetic model. Results show that the chitin/PVA binary blend is a good adsorbent for the removal of copper and nickel ions from metal solution.

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Used oil generation and management in the automotive industries
Author(s)- Jhanani. S, Kurian Joseph

ABSTRACT

Used oil has been classified as hazardous wastes by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India which demands its proper management to avoid serious threat to the environment and for economic gains. Used oil could be recovered or reprocessed and reused as base oil thus saving the use of virgin oil. This paper presents an assessment of the used oil generation and management practices by the automotive industries located in Chennai and Kancheepuram in Tamilnadu. Used oil generation and management in eight automotive industries in this area were studied by means of questionnaires, direct observations and interviews. Studies were also undertaken for specific used oil generation from the most common process – reaming and rolling. The specific used oil generation rate varies from 93 - 336 L/cubic metre of metal cut depending on whether the industries use online centrifuging system for re-refining. Suggestions for the improvement of the used oil management practices are included in this paper.

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Effect of Cyanopith Biofertilizer as Basal and Spray on Zea Mays (Corn) Cultivation
Author(s)- Subramaniyan.V, Malliga.P

ABSTRACT

Cyanobacteria also called blue-green algae evolved early in the history of life and they have the unique potential to contribute to productivity in a variety of agricultural and ecological situations. However, the technology needs to be improved further for better exploitation under sustainable agriculture systems. Cyanopith biofertilizer is an organic fertilizer produced by biodegradation of coir pith by using cyanobacteria. The effect of basal, spray and combined application of basal + spray of cyanopith biofertilizer on Zea mays were determined by analysis of the morphological, biochemical and yield of the control and test plants. The result showed that the combined application of Basal 25g + spray 0.4% of cyanopith biofertilizer significantly increase the morphological, biochemical parameters and yield.

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Accumulation of heavy metals in fishes: A human health concern
Author(s)- Javed.M, Usmani.N

ABSTRACT

Investigations on the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Mn, Cr and Zn) were carried out three commercially important fishes namely Channa punctatus (murrel), Clarias gariepinus (cat fish) and Labeo rohita (carp). The accumulation was observed in tissues of muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and Integument. The results revealed that the Fe and Zn concen- trations were the highest in all tissues analyzed, followed by Ni, Cu, Co, Mn and Cr in almost all the three species. In the muscles of Channa punctatus the order of accumulation is Fe >Zn > Ni > Cu > Co> Mn, whereas in Clarias gariepinus it was Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu=Mn> Co > Cr. In Labeo rohita the pattern of accumulation was Zn > Fe > Ni > Cu > Co > Mn. The order of accumulation of heavy metals was similar in murrel and cat fish.

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Phytosociological analysis of Mangroves at Kannur District, Kerala
Author(s)- Vidyasagaran. K et al.,

ABSTRACT

Investigation on floristic diversity of mangroves of Kannur indicated that the  study area constituted 12 species under nine genera belonging to seven families. Rhizophoraceae represented maximum genera of four species. Phytosociological analysis revealed that Acanthus illicifolius registered highest density and relative density followed by Avicennia officinalis.  Whereas relative frequency was highest recorded for Avicennia officinalsi followed by Acanthus illicifolius. Maximum relative basal areawas represented by Aviennia marina followed by Avicennia officinalis.  Structural analysis of the mangroves of Kannur unveiled the domination of Avicennia officinalis which, registered highest Importance value index (IVI) and relative importance value index (RIVI) among the 12 mangroves species distributed all over. Though thisspecies constituted relatively lesser density and frequency, it registered highest IVI and RIVI due to its relatively higher basal area. The lowest IVI and RIVI was registered for Luminitzera racemosa. Diversity indices for six mangrove sites and for  whole Kannur district indicated that mangroves at Pappinisseri constituted highest Shannon Weiner index and equitability (H’ 9.706, 3.75). Highest Simpson's index was reported for Madakkara (0.847) and Kavayi registered lowest value for Shannon Weiner index and H max (H’ 5.72, 2.585).

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Optimization of bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici MPK1 using response surface methodology
Author(s)- Patil M. M, Mallesha, Pandey M. C, Ramana, K. V

ABSTRACT

In the present study culture conditions for bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici MPK1 in modified MRS medium were optimized by response surface methodology. The response studied was bacteriocin production in terms of zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 737 by agar well diffusion method. The results were analyzed by statistical method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fischer’S F test showed value of F 10.06 and demonstrated the significance of the regression model. The regression equation obtained indicated R2 value of 0.9006 and ensured a perfect adjustment of quadratic model to experimental data. In the study optimum bacteriocin production (inhibition zone 17.73 mm) with 87.80% desirability was found at 350C, pH 7.0 and incubation time 39.57 h of growth of bacteria.

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Optimization of bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici MPK1 using response surface methodology
Author(s)- Patil M. M, Mallesha, Pandey M. C, Ramana, K. V

ABSTRACT

In the present study culture conditions for bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici MPK1 in modified MRS medium were optimized by response surface methodology. The response studied was bacteriocin production in terms of zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 737 by agar well diffusion method. The results were analyzed by statistical method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fischer’S F test showed value of F 10.06 and demonstrated the significance of the regression model. The regression equation obtained indicated R2 value of 0.9006 and ensured a perfect adjustment of quadratic model to experimental data. In the study optimum bacteriocin production (inhibition zone 17.73 mm) with 87.80% desirability was found at 350C, pH 7.0 and incubation time 39.57 h of growth of bacteria.

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Degradation of AZO Dye in fixed film Bioreactors: A bench scale study
Author(s)- Suresh Kumar, Pawan Kumar Singh

ABSTRACT

The inorganic (5 ppm PO4-P and 50ppm NO3-N) and organic (30Ml day1 milk whey) nutrients were examined on degradation of Methyl Red (MR) at different hydraulic retention time under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in two different bioreactors; one having only gravel soli matrix while the other having 75% gravel and 25 % coarse river sand solid matrix. The physico-chemical properties of the bioreactor outflows were monitored in terms of colour removal and COD load reduction. In toxicity assessment bioassay Lemna was found to be most sensitive candidate. The outflows from aerated bioreactors were found non-toxic to Lemna while, COD load reduction (63-70%) and decolourisation (90-94%) was also reported higher.

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Determinants of public participation in management activities of local parks
Author(s)- Akbari M, Asadi A, Pouratashi M, Kalantari Kh

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate determinants of public participation in management activities of local parks, Iran. The population of the study consisted of people living near local parks in Karaj City. A sample of 203 people was selected by using random sampling method. The results indicated that gender and educational levels were not determinant factors in participation intention in local park management activities. Regression analysis indicated that about 29.1% of variations in participation intention in local park management activities could be explained by attitude toward park participatory management, income and spending leisure time. The results of explanatory factor analysis for indicating dimensions of participatory park management revealed that people willing to participate in monitoring, informing and cooperation activities in parks management. Finally according to the results, some recommendations suggested for managers and policy makers.

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Physicochemical analysis of selected ground water samples of Vijayawada rural and urban in Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Author(s)- Venkateswara Rao.B

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater and municipal water in Vijayawada Rural and town were studied by taking water samples from different stations. The study was carried out by collecting some groundwater samples during April 2010- May 2010. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and ISI 10500-91. Total 15 parameters were analyzed. It was found that the underground water was contaminated at few sampling sites namely Akunuru, Auto Nagar and Vijayawada. The sampling sites Patamata Lanka and Madduru showed physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking purpose. 

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Biodiversity of Grasses and Associated Vegetation on Different Aged Soil Dumps from Sonepur Bazari OCP, Raniganj Coalfield
Author(s)- Sanjoy Kumar, Chaudhuri.S, Maiti. S.K

ABSTRACT

The site mainly consists of grasses vegetation and spares growth of herbaceous plants. The middle aged soil dumps showed the medium vegetation growth in grasses and herbaceous plants. The older aged soil dumps has dense vegetation with diversity in grasses, herbaceous plants and trees growth. The different aged mine soil dumps contains forty two types’ of different species. At the six sites, among the grasses are Eragrostis variabilis, Eragrostis pacepera, Eragrostis atropiodes, Eragrostis minor, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, and Cynodon dactylon, among the herbaceous plants were Panicum dichotomiflorum, Setaria paniculifera, Desmodium triflorum Mimosa pudica, Lantana camara, Calotropis procera, and Argemone Mexicana and for the trees species are Dalbergia sisso, Azardirachta indica, Ziziphus jujube, Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia seamea, and Acacia nilotica were dominating flora at 2 years and 21 years old mine soil dumps.

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Microbial diversity in solid waste molasses of Sugar Industry, Aranthangi, Tamilnadu
Author(s)- Sanjoy Kumar, Chaudhuri.S, Maiti. S.K

ABSTRACT

Across the world 125 to 130 million tons of sugar is produced every year. About 2/3rd of this is produced from sugarcane and 1/3rd from sugar beet. Sugar industry play an important role in economic growth of country but the effluent releases from the industry posses abrupt changes to water quality and cause water pollution which eventually causes health hazards. The variety of microbes present in the molasses capable to degrade the organic matter in the effluent. The present study reveals the diversity of microorganisms in industrial effluent of molasses. Totally 15 microbial species were isolated from the molasses of Aranthangi sugar industry of Tamilnadu among which six species of fungi, five bacterial species and four species of yeast.

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GIS based Assessment of Noise Pollution in Guwahati City of Assam, India
Author(s)- Wazir Alam

ABSTRACT

A GIS based noise assessment was carried out to study the noise pollution scenario of Guwahati city at various locations, i.e. commercial zones, residential zones and silence zones (educational institutions and hospitals and nursing homes). Sound Level Meter (SLM) was used for assessment of noise levels and noise mapping was done using Geographic Information System (GIS) technique. From the study, it was observed that noise environment of the Guwahati city is deteriorating and unsafe in various locations for human and it exceeds the noise standards suggested by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). This study also highlighted the noise polluted and vulnerable areas through the diurnal noise mapping. It was also observed from the study that, places with high traffic congestion, narrow roads, heavy constructional activities and poor traffic management areas are more vulnerable to high noise levels. Some of the educational institutions, hospitals and nursing homes are also in the grip of high noisy environment. Highest noise levels ranging between 80-90 dB (A) recorded in commercial locations, 65-75 dB (A) in residential areas, 65-75 dB(A) in silence zone in the city.

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Biodegradation prospective of microbes
Author(s)- Vignesh.R, Badhul Haq M.A, Srinivasan.M

ABSTRACT

The exponential growth of the human population has led to the accumulation of huge amounts of non-degradable waste materials across our planet. Living conditions in the biosphere are therefore changing dramatically, in such a way that the presence of non biodegradable residues is affecting the potential survival of many species. The present interest in hydrocarbon biodegradation is motivated in large part by their presence as environmental pollutants. Bioremediation has proven to be an alternative to diminish the effects caused by hydrocarbon pollution of soil and water, using the metabolic capacities of microorganisms that can use hydrocarbons as source of carbon and energy, or that can modify them by co metabolism. The bacteria are well-known for their metabolic diversity and this variety is the fact that many bio-hazardous or relentless anthropogenic chemical compounds are degraded by microbial activities. This review paper highlights the role of various microbes and their derivatives in degradation of hazardous substances from the environment.

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