INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES
VOLUME 1, NO 1 - 2010
Emergency Response Management and Information System (ERMIS) – A GIS based software to resolve the emergency recovery challenges in Madurai city, Tamil Nadu
Author(s)- B.Ganeshkumar, D.Ramesh
Optimum utilization of the time after an accident which is golden hour serves as a measure of effectiveness of any emergency response service provider system. Recovery actions should be taken in time to reduce the loss of life and property. In spite of the reason that the service providers are well equipped, routing problems and traffic congestions breaks their speedy recovery action in real time. This paper presents a case study on Madurai which is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu with 51.9 Km2 and is also referred to as ‘City Never Sleeps’ because of its busy life round the clock. In the recent years, it is transforming its status from ‘Athens of the East’ to ‘Growing IT hub’ of southern Tamil Nadu, thanks to the development of IT sector in this zone. Most of the emergency situations arise in the city due to road and fire accident in this paper for which a detailed GIS database of transportation network, accident locations, hospitals, ambulance locations, police and fire stations was prepared and Spatial Analysis was also carried out for accident records of years 2004 – 2008 by using ArcGIS9.3 to map the accident risk zones. ERMIS, a stand alone software free from GIS software backend was designed with all basic map interaction functions in VB.NET platform with MapObjects2.4, which can able to answer all kind of needs basically required for an emergency responder. A unique route finding OCX was programmed and used to plot O-D cost matrix from multiple origins to multiple destinations. Route Finder was designed to find shortest, time saving routes and services areas. For effective response ERMIS found to provide a greater support in giving information about the vicinity of an emergency and solving direction-finding problems. .
Flood Early Warning System Develop at Garang River Semarang using Information Technology base on SMS and Web
Author(s)- Joko Windarto
One of large rivers flowing in Semarang City is Garang River with watershed area about 203 km2 and having characteristics: high flood discharge and flash flood. The flash flood on January 25th 1990 caused more than 45 people died and lost 8.5 billion rupiahs. In this research, a flood early warning system made, an automatic rainfall recorder (ARR) was placed in upstream of Garang River and an automatic water level recorder (AWLR) placed in Simongan weir. To receive rainfall and water level data, a computer as server placed in Semarang government office. This functions for sending flood status (prepared/caution/careful) to flood attendants, stake holders. Artificial neural network (ANN) used to predict water level where the input are rainfall in upstream river for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 days before and the water level in the downstream for 3 hours before the occasion. The output water level in downstream for next 2 hours. This system integrated with information technology that is SMS (Short Message Services) and Web that the flood early warning can be accessed anywhere as long as communication network is available. The result shows time for sending data of rainfall and water level telemetry system less than 10 minutes, while information system built to give flood early warning information less than 10 minutes. Consequently it fulfill in which the time to receive the information less than time when flood happened in 2 hours. The result of optimum predicting during the ANN training is model 4, 20 neurons; speed training 0.9, momentum 0.3 which input rainfall are four days before the occasion and the water level are 3 hours before having MSE 0.0046. Finally, the results of survey to flood attendants and staffs from government show that 86 % of the respondent absolutely need the flood early warning system.
Need and Urgency of Landslide Risk Planning for Nilgiri District,
Tamil Nadu State, India
Author(s) - G.P.Ganapathy , K.Mahendran S.K Sekar
Landslide is one of the major natural hazards that are commonly experienced in hilly terrains all over the world. Landslides are affect at least 15 per cent of the land area of India—an area which exceeds 0.49 million km2. In India the incidence of landslides in Himalayas and other hill ranges is an annual and recurring phenomenon. There is a variation in the degree of landslide incidences in various hill ranges. For example, the landslide incidences are high to very high in Himalayas, high in Northeastern hill ranges, high to moderate in Western Ghats & Nilgiris and low in the hill ranges of Eastern Ghats & Vindhyas. The landslide hazard zonation atlas of India published by Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC), Government of India reveals that the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu state is one of the severe to very high landslide hazard prone areas of India.
Unprecedented rains triggered about a hundred landslides within an area of 250sq.kms in the district during 1978. Nearly 200 landslides were recorded during 1979 and causing loss of life and severe damage to property. Though the Nilgiri and other mountainous areas are known to be susceptible to landslides, occurrences of such magnitude were unknown earlier. A total of 28 landslides of medium to large size occurred on 14 November, 2006 along NH-67 between Kallar and Pudukkadu villages and along Mountain Railway track between Adderley and Barliyar stations. In the recent times casualities and damage due to landslides have increased in the Nilgiri Hills. More than 110 landslides were reported within five days from 10 to 15 November, 2009, and taken away about 80 human lives, also the vast damage reported on houses, roads and railway lines. This taught the lesson for the need and urgency of landslide planning in Nlgiris among the scientific community and planners.
Digital Elevation Model Generation And Its Application In Landslide Studies Using Cartosat-1
Author(s)- S.Suganthi , K.Srinivasan
This study investigates and demonstrates the state of Remote sensing techniques for detailed landslide hazard assessment applicable to large areas. Since the most common methods of landslide susceptibility assessment using weighted overlay are heavily dependent on 3-dimentional terrain visualization and analysis stereo satellite image from the CARTOSAT-1 high resolution imagery are used for this study. However, if the DEM is accurate and detailed enough to show minor change in terrain height. CARTOSAT-1 stereo images are usually provided with the (RPC) which represent the relationship between the images and object space. Digital photogrammetric and GIS (Geographic information system) widely used in terrain mapping purpose. Increased the demand of maps in various sectors such resource management, engineering sectors in planning and developmental purpose.
The advantage of DEM generation is a very useful for height information. The availability of high-resolution satellite imagery, such as CARTOSAT-1 has opened new possibilities for terrain parameter evaluation. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites CARTOSAT-1 carry PAN camera, providing high resolution (2.5 m) Stereo imagery of the earth’s surface. DEM generated from stereo data has been validated using ground control points (GCPs) with reference DEM. which is used for evaluating the terrain parameters such as elevation, slope, contour, drainage pattern, and thematic maps of geology and geomorphology lineament land use and soil map. These parameters are required as input to applications such as landslide susceptibility analysis.
The spatial relationship between landslide-occurrence and factors influencing landslides are assessed. Finally, Landslide susceptibility map will provide guidelines to assess the spatial distribution of potential landslide by identified landslide prone area and validate previous landslide location. This landslide susceptibility information should provide have useful new tool for study and evaluation of landslide occurrence.
Identification of Accident Hot Spots: A GIS Based Implementation for Kannur District, Kerala
Author(s)- Deepthi Jayan.K , B.Ganeshkumar
Accident analysis studies aim at the identification of high rate accident locations and safety deficient areas. In this study, an effort ahs been made to identify the accident prone zones within Kannur district, Kerala using GIS. For this purpose, the road accident data for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008 pertaining to Kannur district have been used. Accident particulars like date, location, type of vehicle involved, number of persons injured or died are included in the GIS database. Accident analysis studies aim at the identification of high rate accident locations and safety deficient areas. The “Density” function available in the spatial analyst extension of the Arc GIS software was applied to identify the accident prone areas in Kannur district during the years 2006, 2007 and 2008. Both simple and Kernal densities were applied in identifying the accident patterns. The road geometry was measured in the accident prone locations to find out the causes for the accident. Based on the result, suggestions are provided to reduce the accidents in the future.
Author(s) - R.Manonmani, G.Mary Divya Suganya
Information on landuse/landcover in the form of maps and statistical data is very vital for spatial planning, management and utilization of land. In the study, Remote Sensing and geographic information system (GIS) were used in order to study landuse/landcover changes. Land use change may influence many natural phenomena and ecological processes, including runoff, soil erosion and sedimentation and soil conditions. The Urban areas are changing due to various human activities, natural conditions and development activities. According to the user requirements, updating of landuse mapping is required to various departments. The aims of this study are to detect land use changes between 1990 to 2005 using satellite images of Land Sat 7 ETM+ (1990) and IRS- LISS III (2005) and digital topographic maps have been used. The objectives of the study is to see the landuse/landcover changes in Urban areas and identifying hotspots of land cover changes using multi temporal satellite data and also studying relationship between human pressure on landuse/landcover and its impacts in the vital Urban habitats. Landuse changes have been detected by image processing method in EDRAS imagine. Finally to predict the changes in Urban habitants and landuse/landcover changes occurred. Monitoring of landuse/landcover changes which would help to plan development activities such as major schemes and for used requirements. Change detection has shown that the built up area increased between 1990 and 2005 by 15.83% from 6513.29 ha to 9300.97 ha. Also, the area with irrigated land farms have been decreased to 436.99 ha (2.48%) and the scrub land decreased to 5.19%.
An Integrated Approach with GIS and Remote Sensing Technique for
Landslide Hazard Zonation
Author(s) - S.Evany Nithya P. Rajesh Prasanna
Landslide is among the major hydro-geological hazards that affect large parts of India, especially Himalayas, North- Eastern hill ranges, Western Ghats, Nilgiris and Eastern Ghats. Landslide hazard zonation helps in identifying strategic points and geographically critical areas prone to landslides. This paper deals with an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographical information systems for landslide hazard zonation. Landslide hazard zonation simply means the division and preferably subdivision of land surface in to various zones according to the degrees of actual potential hazard caused by landslides and related phenomena. The key factor in landslide hazard mapping is the assessment and grading of risk associated with the failures. The landslide distributions are mapped by extraction of features from the satellite images. In order to analyze landslide susceptibility efficiently, the existing maps are digitized and processed with the help of integration of terrain information by GIS. Six categories of controlling factors for landslides i.e. aspect of slope, geology, land use, drainage, lineament and runoff are defined. The data obtained is integrated to form landslide hazard zonation map. An effort is made to generate a landslide susceptible map from satellite imagery, DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and maps. Finally, a map divided into four susceptibility zones is produced using the weight value of all controlling factors using the method of multi objective decision making process and then each susceptibility zone is evaluated by comparing with the distribution of each controlling factor class. Landslide susceptible map can be used to predict the occurrence of the landslide and also used for planning developmental activities in this geomorphologically fragile Nilgiris plateau.
Delineation of Areas for Water Conservation in Peruvamba River basin,
Kannur district, Kerala, Using Remote Sensing and GIS.
Author(s) - Sampad Kumar Panda, B. Sukumar
The concept of Watershed prioritization is the basis of effective planning and optimum development of the natural resources. Selection of priority watershed area includes the location and determination of vulnerable watersheds, the treatment of which can be possible on priority basis with adaptation of frontier technologies like Satellite Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The present study is an attempt to locate and assess the priority areas of Peruvamba river basin, Kannur district, Kerala to take action plan for development, by interpretation of space borne Satellite data and overlaying different factors in the GIS platform. Peruvamba River is one of the 20 rivers in Kannur district situated in the northern part of it originating from the Western Ghats and flows in to the Lakshadweep Sea constituting a total catchment area of 269 Km2.The catchment boundary and drainage network have been delineated using topographic map on 1:50,000 scale and watershed boundary are demarcated with attention to stream ordering. From the existing collateral data, different aspects like geology, soil, relief, drainage, landform, slope, aspect, relative relief and landuse maps were prepared using Arc GIS software. Land use and land cover map is prepared from IRS LISS-III FCC by supervised classification in Erdas Imagine software. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is used to get vegetation and period of growth. Weightage are assigned for different factors and a composite map is prepared by overlaying in IDRISI platform and reclassified to bring out the result and final output. Appropriate suggestions are made for future development.By overlaying the Panchayat boundary on the Watershed map, it is derived that watersheds of Kankole-Allappandamba, Peringome-Vayakara, Eramam-Kuttur and Periyaram Panchayats should be prioritized. This will be useful for developmental planning by the Administrators and Agriculture Dept
Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for Artificial Recharge Zone in Sivaganga District, Tamilnadu, India
Author(s)-Balachandar.D, Alaguraja.P, Sundaraj.P , Rutharvelmurthy.K , Kumaraswamy.k
Water has become a scarce resource all over the world. Water resources of Earth can be classified as surface water and ground water in which groundwater is the main source for the domestic purpose and agriculture. The study area Sivaganga district falls in the Southern part of Tamil Nadu, it comprises of major town such as Tirupattur, Karaikudi, Devakottai and having 30 & 34 villages respectively. The study area covers an area of 4378.7sq.km. It falls in between North Latitudes of 90 30’ 15’’ and 100 30’ 00’’ and east Longitudes of 780 10’ 15’’ and 790 00’ 00’’ Preparation of digital geological data from Geological survey of India (GSI) for the study area. Aim and objectives of the work is preparation of various thematic data such as Drainage, Drainage density, Lineament, Lineament density, Geomorphology ,Land use and Land cover using Landsat data .Using Digital Image processing, the supervised, unsupervised Classification, band ratioing, filtering and NDVI Techniques for updating the above all thematic maps. Assigning Weightages to the above thematic maps and its classes. Integration of all above thematic maps based on the Weightages and Identification of selection of suitable site for artificial recharge to the study area. P 143 R 52 Date: 15-05-2001, P 143 R 53 Date: 15-05-2001, Geological Data Satellite: TM and SRTM, SOFTWARE USED ArcGIS 9.3 version.ENVI: 4.3 version. The data sources like satellite and topographic data and other secondary data were used for generation of various spatial parameters. The development and assessment of geology, geomorphology, natural resources need précised maps. The specific purposes maps are often referred as “thematic” maps because they contain information about a single object or theme, to make the thematic data easy to understand. The main task of the current study the primary and secondary data are assembled together in GIS platform. The spatial data are assembled in digital format and properly registered to take the spatial component referenced. The namely sensed data provides more reliable information on the different themes. Hence in the present study various thematic maps were prepared by visual interpretation of satellite imagery, SOI Top sheet. All the thematic maps are prepared 1:250,000, 1:50,000 scale. For the study area, artificial recharge sites had been identified based on the number of parameters loaded such as 4, 3, 2, 1 & 0 parameters. Again, the study area was classified into priority I, II, III suggested for artificial recharge sites based on the number of parameters loaded using GIS integration. These zones are then compared with the Landuse and Landcover map for the further adopting the suitable technique in the particular artificial recharge zones.
A study on Remote Sensing on Coastal Geomorphological Landforms From Coleroon River Mouth to Cuddalore South Arcot, Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s)- Pandiaraj.D, Karikalan.R , Alaguraja.P , Jeyaraj.N , Roger.D.C, and Giriprasad.C
The present study area is the Coleroon river estuary to Cuddalore is located on the eastern part of the Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu. It is bound between the latitudes E 790 30’00” and E 800 00’00” and Longitudes N 110 45’00” and N 790 15’00” It is discuss the use of Remote Sensing data for coastal Geomorphological studies. Briefly describe the results or the study or the Geomorphology of the study area cuddalore Coast of Tamilnadu, using aerial photographs and LANDSAT images. Recording of various coastal and near shore geomorphological features and grouping them in different units. Development of offshore bars, beach ridges, spits, beach, sand dunes, tidal flats etc.Origin and development of cliffs, wave-cut platforms and coastal platea.iv. Working out lithological and structural influence on the. Geomorphology of the area. On the basis of tone, texture, size shape, drainage pattern and associations, various geomorphic features like beach, beach ridges, sand dune, marine terraces, swales etc are identified from aerial photographs in the scale 1:50000. Using the data acquired from the primary source of aerial photos, to understand the geomorphic features of east coast of Cuddalore region. Rivers are under tidal influence for most of their length towards the coast. The rivers run mostly straight with sharp bends and meandering are a rare phenomenon. The area is mostly characterized by the dendritic type of drainage pattern Remote sensing data enlargely helps us to determine the Geomorphology of the study area.