Article abstracts

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 1, NO 3 - 2010

ABSTRACTS

Geomatics  Based Assessment on Land use Changes and its Impact over the Groundwater Conditions in a newly developing sub urban area –A Case of Southern Chennai

Author(s)- Jaganathan.R, Chelvaraajhan .K,  Mahalingam S

ABSTRACT
Geomatics is today widely used in land use change detection and management of water resources. The technology has found to be very effective in identification of land use changes occurred over a period of time with temporal data. Explosive growth of urbanisation, increasing demand of water for industries and IT parks have resulted in reduction of water bodies and land use in southern sub urban area of Chennai City. Detection of land use changes brings out aquifer hazards in the study area. The present paper summarizes the aggravating groundwater problem and gives solution through geomatics by integrating drainage, geology, geomorphology, lineament, soil, water level, rainfall and land use for the periods 1994, 2004 and 2008.  By synthesizing the satellite data and hydrogeological information, changes in land use category, uprising aquifer hazards, unaccountable groundwater extraction surpassing over unplanned growth of urbanization which have trigged the hydrogeological imbalance, lowering of water level have been identified.

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GIS based Groundwater Quality Mapping in Paravanar River
Sub- Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

Author(s)- Shankar.K, Aravindan.S, Rajendran.S

ABSTRACT
Water, the precious gift of nature to human being, polluted day-by-day with increasing urbanization. Although three-fourth of earth is being surrounded by sea only a little portion of it can be used for drinking purpose. The study area Paravanar basin lies in the Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu. The area is located in the survey of india toposheets No’s 58M/6, 58M/7, 58M/10&11, of the year 2003 in 1:50,000 scale lying between the longitude 11º18’to11º45’ and latitude 79º18’ to 79º45’. The Geo-graphical extent of Paravanar sub-basin is 880 sq km. It is bounded on the north by Gadilam river basin, in the south by Vellar basin, on the east by Bay of Bengal. The study area is typically covered by sedimentary rock types of Cretaceous to Recent age. Though the basin receives moderate to heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity problems as well as water quality problems in some specific areas. Hence, a GIS based groundwater quality mapping has been carried out in the region with the help of data generated from chemical analysis of water samples collected from the basin. An attempt has been made to study on the quality of ground water for the Villages falling in the Paravanar Sub Basin to interpolate major ions concentration in groundwater by using ARC/view GIS software. Major elements thematic maps on Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates were prepared from the Hydrochemistry data. Different classes in thematic maps were categorized as (i) good (ii) Moderate and (iii) poor. In the study area sulphates are found to be within prescribed limit for drinking purpose.

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Monitoring & analysis of wastelands and its dynamics using multi-resolution and temporal satellite data in part of Indian state of Bihar

Author(s)- Nathawat M.S et. al.,

ABSTRACT
Voluminous increase in population has created an excessive demand for productive land. At the same time land degradation because of desertification, soil salinity, waterlogging, floods/droughts, excessive soil erosion and unscientific agricultural practices has resulted in the creation of vast stretches of wastelands. This has necessitated adoption of scientific measures for increasing land productivity and bringing more areas under cultivation/forests. In the present study, the multi-temporal satellite images of IRS P6 LISS-III were used to map wastelands dynamics over different seasons. An attempt has also been made to evaluate the potential of high spatial resolution LISS IV (5.8 m) data over moderate spatial resolution LISS-IIIdata (23.5 m) from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellitefor delineation of wastelands in a portion of the Indo-Gangetic plains of northern India. Visual interpretation based on image characteristics and a prior knowledge of the study area was used to delineate wasteland classes. Using LISS III data, 1372.92 and 605.90 hectares of land areas are identified as affected by seasonal and permanent waterlogged respectively, and using LISS IV, 1113.33 and 105.84 hectares of land areas are identified as affected by seasonal and permanent waterlogged respectively. Wasteland classes such as seasonal and permanent waterlogged could be further separated into wasteland classes such as land with dense scrub, land with open scrub, degraded pastures/grazing lands and degraded land under plantation using higher resolution satellite data.

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Digital and Visual Analyses of IRS Satellite Data for Zonation and change deduction of coral reefs in Gulf of Mannar marine biosphere reserve

Author(s)-Thanikachalam.M

ABSTRACT
Coral reefs are highly sensitive and productive marine ecosystem. The increasing human population and their activities and other natural factors have caused the degradation of coral reefs. The IRS LISS-II (1988) and IRS LISS-III (1998) satellite data with GIS and ERDAS software were used for mapping coral reef, change detection and of coral reef zonations. Digital and visual techniques were used to map the coral reefs. Visual classification shows that 25 km2 of coral reef area in Gulf of Mannar has been lost over a period of ten years.  Digital classification of IRS LISS-III date using Principle Component Analysis was found to be more suitable for coral reef zonation.

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High Resolution data processing for Spatial Image Data Mining

Author(s)-Md Ateeq Ur Rahman, Shaik Rusthum

ABSTRACT
This paper contributes towards the development of adaptive learning system for automated segmentation and prediction of isolated regions in given spatial images. The effect of spatial distortion is observed in the spatial images under different processing noise conditions. A method for image denoising, shape and textural feature information using multi wavelet transformation is suggested. The regions in the image are estimated using global graph theory technique. A methodology to provide guidance for mining Remote sensing image data is proposed. To improve the accuracy of estimation, hierarchal clustering over distributed data sample is presented. The concepts of linear relation among various clusters are explored and are incorporated in data mining approach. The performance of retrieval time and classification accuracy has been evaluated for various cases.

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A GIS and frequency ratio based landslide susceptibility mapping: Aghnashini river catchment, Uttara Kannada, India

Author(s)-Avinash K.G, Ashamanjari K.G

ABSTRACT
Landslides are encountered during the monsoon season in the undulating terrains of the Western Ghats, resulting in significant damage to life and property. Here landslide susceptible regions are modelled in the Aghnashini river catchment of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India, using the frequency ratio method. Factors that influence landslides like slope, aspect, distance from roads and lineament, soil depth, soil type, and Land use and land cover, were extracted from the spatial database. Using the factors and detected landslide based on the field work, the relationships were calculated using frequency ratio, one of the probabilistic model of frequency ratio model. The computed index for each grid for each factor was summed and grouped into five classes. The susceptibility in the region with Argillit, clayey-skeletal, slope greater than 45, slope facing Southwest having grassland showed highest susceptibility. The landslide-susceptibility map can be used to reduce damage associated with landslides and to land cover planning.

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Petrographic and geochemical characterization of cryogenian mafic dykes of the Iguerda-Taïfast inlier (Central Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

Author(s)-El Aouli.E, Ikenne.M, Amaouain.H

ABSTRACT
In the inlier of Iguerda-Taïfast (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) the Neoproterozoic basic rocks consist dominantly of dolérite dykes intruded the Palæoproterozoic basement and overlain by the late Neoproterozoic series. Major and immobile trace elements (HFS and REE elements) allow to identify two groups of mafic rocks: (i) the first is tholeiitic, (ii) the second shows a transitional affinity with chondrite normalized REE patterns more fractionated. Their geochemical signatures display similarities with those of intraplate series found in young continental rift structures (they are enriched in incompatible elements, excepted Y and Yb, relative to N-MORB, but they are depleted in Nb). This preorogenic magmatism can be related to begining of rifting in the northern border of the West-African craton, which allows the emplacement of bassins of Pan-African belt of Anti-Atlas. This rifting may be related to the opening of an oceanic domain in Siroua and Bou-Azzer areas.

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Geospatial Modeling of Wine Grape Quality Indicators (Anthocyanin) for Development of Differential Wine Grape Harvesting Technology

Author(s)-Balaji Sethuramasamyraja et.al.,

ABSTRACT
Segregation of wine grapes based on quality during harvest is a growing need for producers and wineries as spatial variability of vineyard quality is well established. While wine grape quality indicators like anthocyanin (mg/g) are measurable, there is no commercial technology to differentially harvest using such parameters. Geo-referenced field samples of wine grapes were measured for anthocyanin and brix using a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. Data was collected from 437 sampling vines in a 45 acre block and 1330 in a 160 acre block of vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley of California (2006-2007). Geo-spatial modeling of anthocyanin yielded quality zones of ‘high’ and ‘low’ quality while the brix dataset was utilized to determine the timing of the harvest. The anthocyanin concentration used to differentiate between high and low quality was based on cut off values of 0.87 and 1.05 mg anthocyanin/g fruit for the two vineyards specified by winemakers. A differential harvest attachment was developed for a commercial mechanical grape harvester that utilized the geospatial quality map for segregation of wine grapes on-the-go. Three 40 tons lots of wine grapes representing the standard (average) field blend, high anthocyanin and low anthocyanin were differentially harvested from each vineyard. These wine grapes were fermented separately and subjected to analytical and taste panel analysis resulting in significant (99.4% confidence) difference in wines produced.

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Potential and Constraints of Geospatial Data for Precise Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change at Landscape Level

Author(s)-Shakil Ahmad Romshoo, Irfan Rashid

ABSTRACT
There is plethora of data to support the evidence of human footprints on the climate change being observed across all the continents. The climate change shall have impacts, not only on environment, but on every sphere of the human activity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to accurately characterize, understand and predict various climatological processes so that the uncertainty could be narrowed down to the minimum possible level in order to predict the impacts of climate change on various sectors. This article briefly discusses the uncertainties associated with the climate change predictions and the data constraints encountered while quantifying the various indicators and impacts of climate change particularly with reference to snow, glaciers, wetlands and agriculture and hydrometeorological data.  The article discusses various data sources and the difficulties encountered in using these data particularly remotely sensed data, simulation models and hydrometeorological data used for identifying the indicators of climate change.

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Net Primary Productivity Estimation of Eastern Ghats using                      Multispectral MODIS Data

Author(s)-Nethaji Mariappan

ABSTRACT
Javadhu Hills is one of the natural bio-reserves of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. This hill lies between 78°35” and 79°35” East longitude and 12°24” and 12°55” North Latitude with an area of 2405 square km. MODIS Satellite data is used to map local scale NPP for Javadhu Hills in Tamil Nadu, India. NPP maps for four different seasons namely (Southwest Monsoon, North East Monsoon, winter and summer season were generated for the years 2008-2009 using MODIS 09A1 surface reflectance products. “Micrometeorological approach” of Monteith’s equation and “Production efficiency approach” by Goward and Ruimy were also attempted. Best of both the approaches were used in this study for NPP estimation of Javadhu hills. This study explains the temporal variation of NPP between different seasons. NPP and NDVI values are higher for the North east and South west monsoons comparatively lower for winter and lowest for the summer season. Thus this study gives an insight to identify the significance of Micrometeorological parameters affecting seasonal NPP values.

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GIS, Cadastre and Sustainable Development

Author(s)- KamyarHasanzadeh

ABSTRACT
Over last three decades theories on spatial information technology  and sustainable development have created new visions in cadastre. Sure like any  other discipline cadastral sciences need to be updated and achieve newer insight in order to remain relevant and retain its part in developing future. In this article we are going to explore all current factors and predict future elements in order to design a efficient cadastral system usable in high levels of management and land developing. Factors such as population growth , urbanization, governance, climate change, etc. One of the important components of any cadastral system is the cadastral map. But the existing systems consisting of paper maps and conventional land registers are becoming inefficient. For that reason, a Cadastral Information System (CIS), based on digital cadastral map in which attributes and map data on cadastral unit are stored in the same database, should be introduced. The CIS should be designed to support not only the cadastral mapping or the land surveying but also a variety of purposes such as identifying specific areas, determining limits of different status of land, sustainable development, social stability, land management and agricultural studies. consequently we will design six elements for future cadastre: survey-accurate cadastres, object oriented cadastres, 3D/4D cadastres,real time cadastres, global cadastres and finally organic cadastres. Later in this paper we will overview the concept of land administration for sustainable development. The result is a practical treatise with a strong and universal theoretical foundation which explores the systems that administer the ways people relate to land. Key themes include the adoption of a toolbox of best practices for designing LAS with general, professional, specific for each country based on its national needs.

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Geologic hazards research and their inducing factors in Xianyang urban area, Northwest China

Author(s)- Wu Jianhua, Xi Wenjuan

ABSTRACT
Xianyang urban district is one of most serious geologic hazard zones in Shaanxi province, Northwest China. In this paper, through field investigations, the main types and characteristics of geologic hazards in Xianyang urban district were analyzed, the different developments of geologic hazards were classified, the formation and inducing factors were explained as well as the estimation of harm on economy losses and human beings were figured out. The results show that the main hazard types in this region are collapse, ground subsidence and ground fissures, and the whole area can be divided into two geological disaster-prone zones. Geological disasters are mainly developed in the front line of 3rd terrace and in some local areas of the Loess Plateau. The occurrence of geologic hazard in this city is closely related with topography, geology, rock and soil properties, precipitation, and groundwater pumping and human activities.

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Shoreline change and sea level rise along coast of Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa: An analytical approach of remote sensing and statistical techniques

Author(s)- Pritam Chand, Prasenjit Acharya

ABSTRACT

The shoreline is one of the rapidly changing linear features of the coastal zone which is dynamic in nature. The issue of shoreline changes due to sea level rise over the next century has increasingly become a major social, economic and environmental concern to a large number of countries along the coast, where it poses a serious problem to the environment and human settlements. The global effects of sea-level rise on coasts will vary spatially. As a consequence, some coastal scientists have advocated analyzing and predicting coastal changes on a more local scale. The need to predict and manage the potential impact of sea-level rise on coasts necessitates accurate study on micro level. The present study demonstrates the potential of Geospatial and statistics technique for monitoring the shoreline changes along the coast of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa, India since such kind of changes stand as a testimony for the past and present coastal environment. In the present study, multi-resolution and multi temporal satellite images of Landsat have been utilized to demarcate shoreline positions during 1973, 1989, 2000 and 2009. The Statistical techniques called as linear regression and regression coefficient (R2) have been used for find out the change rate during the period of 1973-2009. Finally, an attempt has been made to find out any interactive relationship between the sea level rise and shoreline change in the concerned area. The present study demonstrates that combined use of satellite imagery and statistical methods can be a reliable method for analyzed the shoreline changes in relationship to sea level rise.

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Integrated analysis of Geophysical Data of Ponnaiyar river basin using Arcview GIS Software

Author(s)- Ruby .D et.al.,

ABSTRACT
A model of aquifer geometry of Ponnaiyar River basin is simulated with in agreeable degree of accuracy.  The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) together lithologs forms the data base in the determination of depth, thickness and spatial distribution of overburden, weathered rock, fractured rock and bed rock and the corresponding themes are shown as surface plot, Contours, 3D plot and cross section with the effluent use of GIS packages Arc View. There exist close correspondence between the pattern of drainage and the aquifer dimension. Along the rivers and parts of the foothills region, deep weathered and/ or fracturing is noticed.  Themes of topsoil, weathered rock, deep weathered rock and fractured rock are integrated digitally in order to obtain the places where thickness of all the three are more, thus suitable for artificial recharge (RWS).  The results generated from this research will be of great help in various numerical solutions and GIS analysis pertaining to this basin. The technique of resistivity method proved to be successful where the data analyzed in- group for specific area reveled satisfactory results in characterizing the aquifer geometry, although the utility of this technique for locating water well sites in hard rock areas cost doubt in certain cases.

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Estimation of  Rainfall-Runoff  using Remote Sensing and GIS in and around Singtam, East Sikkim

Author(s)- Ratika Pradhan et.al.,

ABSTRACT
Rainfall runoff is an important component contributing significantly to the hydrological cycle, design of hydrological structures and morphology of the drainage system. Estimation of the same is required in order to determine and forecast its effects.  Estimation of Direct rainfall-runoff is always efficient but is not possible for most of the location at desired time. Use of remote sensing and GIS technology can be used to overcome the problem of conventional method for estimating runoff caused due to rainfall. In this paper, modified Soil conservation System (SCS) - CN model is used for rainfall-runoff estimation that considers parameter like slope, vegetation cover, area of watershed.

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Effect of Geomagnetic Storms in the Equatorial Anomaly Region observed from ground based data

Author(s)- Shweta Mukherjee et.al.,

ABSTRACT
The critical frequency foF2 and virtual heights observed by the ionosondes are good indicators of the true layer heights and electron concentration and may provide information about the equatorial ionosphere dynamics. Four storms of varying intensity were selected for the study. In this paper the behavioral change in Z component of IMF, Bz, ionospheric F2 layer parameter during geomagnetic disturbed days are studied for equatorial ionization anomaly station Ahmedabad (23.01ºN, 72.36ºS). The study shows that the geomagnetic storm constitute both positive and negative phase and multistep development is also observed. It was observed that the magnitude of turning of Bz into southward direction from northward highly depends upon the severity of the storm and the variation in F2 layer parameters at the time of geomagnetic storm are strongly dependent upon the intensity of storms.   

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Flood Hazard Mapping by Integrated GIS - SCS Model 

Author(s)- Bhankaurally Mustapha Yahya et.al.,

ABSTRACT
Natural hazards have existed since the dawn of civilization. With time, they have slowly changed into disasters where the main factor gearing the amplitude of their effects is the extent of urbanization within the critical regions of occurrence. Thus, with the development, these disasters have become the cause of socio-economic losses. Amongst all, disasters of hydro-meteorological origins are most frequent and seriously damaging nature. Small countries and islands suffer much from such events, because of the precocity of their economies and lack of appropriate infrastructure. Mauritius, given its geographic location and climate, is quite prone to such extreme events, even if floods are the most recurrent ones.  The aim of this research study is to explore the possibility of the relevance of an adapted flood study model to the island, and how it could better help understanding the source of the problem. The integrated GIS - SCS hydrological model is utilized to highlight the flooding problem in Mauritius.  Flood sensitive zones were identified using Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and flood hydrographs were derived for two catchments namely J and M.  The research article further discusses how coupling of these two techniques could help to identify even the most critical flood prone areas within a sub-catchment.

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Morphometric analysis and prioritization of sub-watersheds using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques: a case study of Odisha, India

Author(s)-Sangita Mishra.S, Nagarajan.R

ABSTRACT
The study area is one of the watersheds of Tel river, covering an area of 1515.45 km2 and lies between 19° 17′ and 20° 00′ N latitude and 82° 30′ and 82° 59′E longitude in Bhawanipatna area of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India. Poor soil cover, sparse vegetation, erratic rainfall and lack of soil moisture characterize the study area for most part of the year. Recurring drought coupled with increase in ground water exploitation results in decline in the ground water level. So the entire study area has been further divided into 12 sub-watersheds named SWS-1 to SWS-12, ranging in geographical area from 30 km2 to 202 km2 and has been taken up for prioritization based on morphometric analysis using GIS and remote sensing techniques. The drainage density of sub-watersheds varies between 1.09 to 3.36 km/km2 and low drainage density values of sub-watershed SWS-11 indicates that it has highly resistant, impermeable sub-soil material with dense vegetative cover and low relief. The elongation ratio varies from 0.6 - 0.8 which indicates high relief and steep ground slope. The high value of circularity ratio for SWS-11 sub-watershed (0.8) indicates the late maturity stage of topography. This anomaly is due to diversity of slope, relief and structural conditions prevailing in this sub-watershed. The compound parameter values are calculated and the sub-watershed with the lowest compound parameter is given the highest priority. The sub-watershed SWS-1 has a minimum compound parameter value of 4 is likely to be subjected to maximum soil erosion and susceptible to natural hazards. Hence it should be provided with immediate soil conservation measures.

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Erosion susceptibility zoning and prioritization of mini-watersheds using Geomatics approach

Author(s)-Sunil Londhe,Nathawat.M.S, Subudhi.A.

ABSTRACT
Sediment yield data is generally not available for smaller hydrologic units and it becomes difficult to identify the most vulnerable  erosion zone that can be treated on a priority basis. The study area is 163407 ha lies between 23° 13' 12"N  23° 33' 1" N latitude and 85° 10' 28" E 85° 54' 16" E longitude having 3870 streams linked with 7 order of streams and divided in to 20 mini-watersheds. The evaluation of morphometric and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) parameters using  remote sensing and GIS for prioritization of mini-watersheds in Subranerakha Sub-catchment, Jharkhand, India. Furthermore, attempt was also made to compare the ranks obtained from both parameters to ascertain the validity of ranks of USLE. The ranks of USLE were found more appropriate and are considered for the prioritization of mini-watersheds. Five categories of priority viz., very high, high, medium, low and very low, were used to classify the mini-watersheds. The prioritization results reveal that four mini-watersheds viz. USR7, USR8, USR10 and USR5 fall under the category   of very high priority. The area is grouped in to very severe, moderately severe, moderate, slight and very slight erosion susceptibility zones. GIS and remote sensing based evaluation of morphometric and USLE parameters for ranking them is an immense help in the prioritization of small hydrologic units. Further the technology is helpful in erosion susceptibility zone mapping based on ranks obtained from morphometric and USLE parameters for evaluation of conservation measures for ridge to valley treatment.

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A deterministic seismic hazard analysis for the major cultural heritage sites in Tamilnadu, India

Author(s) - Ganapathy.G.P

ABSTRACT
As stated in several studies Tamilnadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area  and the seventh most populous state and also it is the fifth largest contributor to India's GDP and the most urbanised state in India.  The region has been the home of the Tamil civilization since at least 1500 BC, as attested by numerous archeological sites in and around Adichanalur . Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, grand hindu temples of Dravidian architecture , hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites .  Bureau of Indian Standard (2001) categorized Tamil Nadu under Seismic Zones II and III, representing an area of 73% and 27% respectively.  It should also to be noted that the major historical and Heritage sites like Mahabalipuram, Kamakshi Amman Temple in Kanchipuram, Kapaleshwarar temple in Chennai are fall in Zone III of Moderate Hazard (Figure 1). In this connection these heritage sites has to be evaluated for Seismic Risk. As a first step the potential seismic hazard for these sites evaluated based on deterministic approach.  

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Evaluation of Groundwater Potentials in parts of the escarpment areas of southeastern, Nigeria

Author(s) - Okoro E.I, Egboka B.C.E, Anike O.L, Enekwechi E.K

ABSTRACT
The change in climatic energy balance associated with economic and industrial development has global implications. The groundwater resources of parts of southeastern Nigeria are influenced by the presence of the escarpment and changes in the climatic conditions. The depth to watertable in aquifer in the escarpment area varies between 10 to170m during the rainy season and 80 to 260m in the dry season. The geomorphic characteristics of the escarpment are major controlling factors in groundwater recharge /discharge and availability. Although favourable values of the aquifer parameters of hydraulic conductivity and the transmissivity measured in the area range from 2.08x10-1cm/s to 8.46x10-1cm/s and 150x10-3 m2/hr to 481x10-3m2/hr respectively, variation in watertable and loss of surface water still occur exacerbating water scarcity, public health and food security. The principal flow direction of the surface and groundwater sources in the area is in the NE and NW direction following the influence of the escarpment and consequently creating both surface and subsurface water divide. Nanka Sands and Imo Shale are the major geologic units prevalent in the study area. While huge watertable and confined aquifers are found in Nanka Sands, the Imo Shale forms aquitards except in the sandstone members

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Textural characteristics and organic matter distribution patterns in Tirumalairajanar river Estuary, Tamilnadu, East Coast of India

Author(s) - Venkatramanan.S, Ramkumar.T, Anitha Mary.I

ABSTRACT
Distribution patterns of grain size characteristics and organic matter in the estuary sediments of India from Tirumalairajanar river have been studied. The present study reveals that sediment texture is one of the main controlling factors for the distribution of organic matter. The sediments are mainly medium to coarse grained, moderately to poor sorted, fine skewed to coarse skewed and leptokurtic to mesokurtic in nature. Based on the CM pattern the sediment fall in rolling and suspension field.  These textural parameters have been examined to understand hydrodynamics of the depositional environment

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Mapping of Landuse/Landcover Changes of Chennai Coast and Issues related to Coastal Environment Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Author(s) - Santhiya.G, Lakshumanan.C, Muthukumar.S

ABSTRACT
Coastal areas are very valuable in view of human beings and more dynamics for land use due to urbanization and industrialization. It is essential to assess the land use/land cover changes for coastal zone management, technologies like Remote sensing and GIS were used to monitor the coastal land use dynamics for the Chennai coast covers stretch of approximately 125kms from Pulicat Lake (North) to Kovalam creek (South). Survey of India Toposheet, Land sat and IRS-LISS III satellite data were used for the years 1976, 1999 and 2007. The maps were compared and changes were attributed; and show that the drastic changes in land use profile. Vegetation cover decreased from 15.49% to 11.19% during 1999-2007 & 19.49% to 15.77% (1976-1999) respectively. Due to the increased population the settlement and built up areas increased considerably 16.82% (1976), 26.20% (1999) and 31.91% (2007). Field observation shows the current status and issues of coastal environmental problems. Study suggested some remedial measures to protect the coastal environment

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Cropland information system in Mongolia using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System: Case study in Tsagaannuur, Selenge aimag

Author(s) - Erdenee.B, Gegen Tana, Ryutaro Tateishi

ABSTRACT

Remote sensing and geographic information system technologies have been of great use to planners in planning for efficient use of natural resources at national, regional and sub regional levels. The role of space geo-informatics in finding new resources for agriculture development for optimally managing the already available resources in order to maximize agriculture production is recognized world wide and is found to be highly potential. We compare estimates of sub provincial cropland area of Tsagaannuur in Mongolia from cropland cover maps derived from remote sensing data. The objectives of this study to develop crop land information system; and monitor in the crop land cover changes in the Tsagaannuur, Selenge aimag as there is important agricultural producing area in Mongolia. In this study, maximum likelihood supervised classification methodology was applied to Landsat TM and ETM images acquired in 1989 and 2000, respectively supplemented by fieldwork and use of other existing data. A supervised classification was carried out on the six reflective bands (bands 1-5 and band 7). Cropland use change detection has shown that the cropland area decreased between 1989 and 2000 by 13.4 percent from 521377 pixels to 451724 pixels.  From this, land cover and farmland maps at 1:10,000 with attribute data were prepared in this area.

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Integrated approach using RS and GIS techniques for mapping of ground water prospects in Lower Sanjai Watershed, Jharkhand

Author(s) - Binay Kumar, Uday Kumar

ABSTRACT
Remote sensing with its advantages of spatial, spectral and temporal availability of data covering large and inaccessible areas within short time has become a very handy tool in assessing, monitoring and conserving groundwater resources. Satellite data provides quick and useful baseline information on the parameters like geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineaments etc. controlling the occurrence and movement of groundwater (Saraf and Choudhuray, 1998). Remote sensing and GIS technology have opened new paths in groundwater studies. The concept of integrated remote sensing and GIS has proved to be an efficient tool in integrating urban planning and ground water studies. Hydrogeomorphological studies coupled with hydrogeological and structural/lineament have proved to be very effective tool to discern ground water potential zones. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the Ground Water Prospect sites in the Lower Sanjai Watershed of Kolhan Division of Jharkhand based on remote sensing and GIS techniques. The groundwater prospect map is a systematic effort and has been prepared considering major controlling factors, which influence the water yield and quality of ground water. The map depicts hydrogeomorphological aspects, which are essential as basis for planning and execution of groundwater exploration. The present information, depicted in the form of a prospect map would provide first-hand information to local authorities and planners about the areas suitable for searching ground water followed by its suitable exploration based on information given for type of well, well depth, water quality and success rate of wells

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An assessment of surface water chemistry of Perumal Lake, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India

Author(s) - Vijayakumar V, Vasudevan S,Pruthiviraj

ABSTRACT
In total sixty water samples were collected from Lake Perumal during summer (SUM) and North East Monsoon (NEM) to broadly cover seasonal variations. The methods of study broadly confined to field and laboratory investigation, which includes collecting water samples throughout the lake Perumal in summer (SUM) and North East Monsoon (NEM). The water samples were collected during May 2008 and November 2008 to broadly cover seasonal variation. The samples collected were analysed Lake Perumal. The analyses were done by adopting standard procedures (APHA, 1998). The total cations (Tz+) and total anions (Tz -) balance (Freeze and Cherry, 1979) show the charge balance error percentage. The error percentage is between ± 1% to ±10% with few exceptions for certain ions which show abnormally higher concentration occurring in two different seasons. In both the season of Lake Perumal samples, there is a continuous mixing between Cl and HCO3 (strong and weak acids) with fews representations of Mg. the dominance of Na and Ca cation trend is noted in both the season. Where as most of the samples show mixing trends of all cation and SO4 +Cl + HCO3, irrespective of season. As per the hydro geochemical classification, all the samples from Lake Perumal fall in type- I irrespective of both seasons. This shows that shorter residence time of water and extent of sediment- water interactions.

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Land Use and Land Cover Changes Detection Using Multitemporal Satellite Data, Cuddalore Coastal Zone, Se-Coast of India

Author(s) - Muthusamy.S et al.,

ABSTRACT
Cuddalore coastal zone is located along the southeast coast of India, Tamil Nadu. This coastal zone is suffering from many natural catastrophes such as storms, cyclones, floods, tsunami and erosion. The study area is seriously affected by 2004 Tsunami and during 2008 Nisha cyclone. The present study aims to study the land use/cover changes through exploratory analyses, land cover classification, and change detection analyses conducted on multitemporal Landsat satellite data (1977, 1991 and 2006). Based on the quantitative analysis on LULC, it was observed that a rapid growth in built-up land between 1977 and 2006 while the periods between 1977 and 2006 witnessed a reduction in this class. It is expected that the expansion of built-up area will follow the same trend from the year 2006 onwards. The settlement with vegetation covers nearly 8.876% of the total area. The dominant land use categories in 1977 were settlement with plantation, which occupied 2.397%. In 1991 settlement with plantation covered nearly 4.743 % in Cuddalore coastal zone. This increase is due to population explosion and the construction of buildings and factories. Landsat satellite data using remote sensing and GIS also proved that the model can be employed under different climate changes as well as management scenarios for developing adaptation strategies for this study area.

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Coastal vulnerability, adaptation and risk assessment due to environmental change in Apodi-Mossoro estuary, Northeast Brazil

Author(s) - Mukesh Singh Boori

ABSTRACT

The Northeast Brazil is physically and socio-economically vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise, due to its low topography and its high ecological and touristic value. The main threats in Apodi-Mossoro estuary that could be connected with sea-level rise and climate change are the flooding of coastal areas, erosion of sandy beaches and the destruction of harbor constructions and natural coastal hazards. Assessment of the potential land loss by inundation has been based on empirical approaches using a minimum inundation level of 1m and a maximum inundation level of 10m. The socio-economic impacts have been based on two possible alternative futures: first a worst situation measured by the economic condition in the maximum inundation level; and second a best situation measured by combining the sustainability on first scenario with the minimum inundation level. Inundation analysis, based on GIS and a modelling approach to erosion, has identified on 22 locations and the socioeconomic sectors that are most at risk to accelerated sea-level rise, climate change and hazards. Results indicate that 15.74% (216.10km2) and 26.43% (362.81km2) of the area will be lost by flooding at minimum and maximum inundation levels, respectively. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the residential and recreational areas, agricultural land and the natural ecosystem. Shoreline erosion is -5.38m/yr since 2003 to 2010 and it`s affect 21.48% the total area in the Apodi-Mossoro estuary which is very high vulnerable area, other than it 73.60% moderate and 4.92% low vulnerable area in Apodi-Mossoro estuary. Potential strategies to ameliorate the impact of global climate change through sea level rise and natural coastal hazards include: wetland preservation; beach nourishment at tourist resorts; and the afforestation of dunes. As this coast is planned to become one of the most developed tourist resorts in RN state by 2012, measures such as building regulation, urban growth planning and development of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, are recommended for the region.

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Delineation of potential zones for artificial recharge using GIS in Theni district, Tamilnadu, India

Author(s) - Sukumar.S, Sankar.K

ABSTRACT
Theni district is having an administrative division of 3 taluks, 8 blocks and 94 villages. The Average annual water resources in our district are estimated (as on 31.03.2004 CGWB, Chennai, TN, India) 489.11 MCM of which utilizable resources are of the order of 459.77 MCM and demand for domestic and industrial uses up to 2025 15.43 MCM. 3 blocks are Over Exploited and another 3 blocks also in Critical stage. The district having three major ground water problems as follows 1. Deeper water levels in valley hill areas, 2.75% of the blocks are categorized as over exploited and critical and 3. Select pockets have salinity problems. Water-supply development is challenging. Increasing demands for water joined with concerns for environmental protection require a variety of new water management tools. Such a tool of groundwater supplies is the artificial recharge of groundwater. Application and benefits are worldwide.

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Web based coastal GIS for southern coastal Tamilnadu by using ArcIMS server technology

Author(s) - Sheik Mujabar. P, Chandrasekar. N

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the information on the development and implication of web-based coastal GIS (STNCOAST-GIS, www.geotechmsu.co.cc) for analysing the dynamics of coastal landform features along the southern coastal Tamil Nadu of India by using ArcIMS server technology. It also deals with the concept, architecture and advantages of ArcIMS technology. The integration of spatial and non-spatial database for the study area has been discussed. The effective dissemination of geospatial information and the findings of the recent researches on the southern coastal Tamil Nadu have been visualised through the web based coastal-GIS. The web-GIS for the study area have wide applications in the field of geology, coastal zone management and developmental projects. It provides up-to date information and dynamics of the various coastal landform features such as sandy beaches, sand dunes, spits, sand bars etc. It also provides the land-use and land-cover mapping along the southern coastal Tamil Nadu.  Thus the developed web based coastal GIS is very useful for the coastal planers, engineers and policy makers to plan various developmental projects in sustainable environmental way.

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