Abstracts of Volume 3 Issue 3, 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 3, NO 3 - 2013

ABSTRACTS

Understanding urban sprawl dynamics of Gulbarga - Tier II city in Karnataka through spatio-temporal data and spatial metrics

Author(s) - Ramachandra T.V, Bharath H. Aithal

ABSTRACT
Rapid urbanization coupled with burgeoning population, economic disparity and prevalence of infectious disease necessitate mitigation strategies in the context of environmental challenges and the sustainability of healthy natural resources. During the past decade, Tier II cities in Karnataka have been witnessing dramatic changes in land cover Unplanned urbanization and consequent impacts on natural resources including basic amenities has necessitated the investigation and understanding of mechanisms and dynamics of land use and land-use change on a range of spatial scales and evaluate the environmental consequences of these changes at the landscape scale. This communication aims to quantify and analyze the spatial–temporal pattern of urbanization process of a tier II city – Gulbarga, Karnataka State, India using Remote Sensing (RS) data and spatial metrics. The results show that during the past decade (2000 - 2010), Gulbarga has experienced spatial expansion of urban area. The urban land use has increased from 1% to 22% in past 4 decades. Temporal remote sensing data with spatial metrics helped in understanding spatial patterns of urban sprawl. Spatial metrics indicate a clumped and aggregated growth at the city and sprawl at the outskirts. Computation of Shannon’s entropy, spatial metrics with the gradient approach helped in bridging the knowledge gap between present and past land use. This knowledge helps the administrators and planners to visualize the urban growth to provide basic amenities.

Read full text

Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in artificial recharge of the ground water aquifer in Ottapidaram taluk, Tuticorin district, South India

Author(s) - Murugiah M, Venkatraman P

ABSTRACT
The world population is expected to double by the middle of the next century, to about 10.6 billion people. More than 80% of these people will live in what is presently known as the "Third World." The importance of water is felt in all sectors as the demand and needs of the populace is growing. The present study area is Ottapidaram Taluk, Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu and India. The Taluk boundary is demarcated from the survey of India Taluk maps were used, it covers an area about 743.62 Km2. The problem of the present study is a representative case of over exploitation of groundwater resources, leading to the continuous exhaustion of the grained as well as the groundwater aquifers. The application of the increasingly and internationally accepted method of artificial recharge on the groundwater aquifer was decided to be the most effective for the restoration of balance of the hydrogeological system. Deep knowledge of the details of the geological structure and the hydrogeological conditions of the area is necessary for the success of the method, whose planning has to be made based on the principles of environmental protection and sustainable development. Use of state-of-the-art technology and estimation of all the parameters involved, which are necessary, have been taken into account. Keep this as an objective to identify the suitable sites for artificial recharge zones.

Read full text

Assessment and mapping of water quality index in Prakasam district, A.P. using geographical information systems

Author(s) - Ch. Maruthi Devi, Kiran Yarrkula,  Usha Madhuri T

ABSTRACT
Assessment of the ground water quality has always been paramount in the field of environmental quality management.  Some of the villages in Prakasam District have a special significance and needs greater attention of all concerned since it is the only major source for domestic consumption.  In the present study, the ground water quality of Prakasam District has been studied. The coordinates of the district lies between 500 30’ N latitudes and 800 03’ E  longitudes.  The ground water samples have been collected from different places of Prakasam District were analyzed in the laboratory using standard procedures given by APHA.  Prakasam District map has been collected from district collector office and sampling locations have been taken using GPS. From the analyzed data, water quality index has been calculated using weighted average method. The data base obtained from water quality index values are used as attribute data base for preparation of thematic map showing distribution of water quality index. The result of the work is presented in the form of map which is to be used for better understanding of the present water quality scenario of the study area.  The variations of water quality in different places were also discussed.

Read full text

Change detection analysis of the shoreline using Toposheet and Satellite Image: A case study of the coastal stretch of Mandarmani-Shankarpur, West Bengal, India

Author(s) - Santra Mitra S, Santra A, Mitra D

ABSTRACT
Change detection helps in ascertaining shoreline trend analysis and its future prediction. In this study, the coastal tract of the part of West Bengal, which is sensitive to rapid shoreline change is chosen. Applying remote sensing and GIS techniques on the multi-temporal satellite image and topo-sheets, shoreline extraction using water index and subsequent change detection analysis have been carried out to assess the erosion-accretion pattern in the region at both regional and local scale. Depending on the erosional pattern, the entire study area was divided into four erosional-cells, and independent study was carried out in different cells. The results exhibit that this coastal region has been experiencing erosion. Excluding the contribution of inland water bodies, it has been estimated that between 1950 and 2005, a vast stretch of the land has been engulfed by the sea-water. This clearly signifies the necessity of coastal zone protection measures to be implemented in the area.

Read full text

The spectral response characteristics of the soils and their possible estimation by using partial   least square regression (PLSR) analysis

Author(s) - Zelikman. E, Carmina. E

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique to predict several important soil parameters such as soil moisture (SM),  hygroscopic water (HW), soil carbonates (SC)  and specific surface area (SSA) through descending layers of the soil stratigraphy. For these purposes a field spectrometer (Analytical Spectral Device, ASD) with a probe (sub-surface spectral head device - 3S-HeD) for reading subsoil reflectance data were used. 145 samples, taken from different Israeli soils at different depth and a spectral library containing  laboratory and field in-situ collected spectra (by using 3S-HeD device) were used to generate calibration and validation models in the study based on the Near Infrared Analysis (NIRS). These models were generated  by the  correlation between spectral characteristics and chemical soil properties separately for each soil property, using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis.The regression coefficients between measured and predicted values of the soil properties varied between 0.93 and 0.99 in the calibration and validation stages, RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) between 0.09 and 4.6, which showed that NIRS method had potential to accurately predict these attributes in soils. Even though the prediction results for SSA are relatively poor (RMSE varied between 27 and 30) accurate linear relationships between the laboratory measured and predicted values exist (it is seen by high correlation r values in the calibration and validation stages). In addition, to predict studied properties down the profile by using 3S -HD device, eighteen drill holes locations were selected from the surface IS-based map within the semi-arid agricultural area, using clustering isodatamethods. For each drill holes ten layers were spectrally measured down to 100 cm depth. The results we got from the spectroscopic analysis were logical given the environmental conditions. Further research is needed to compare our results with chemical lab tests of the same soil samples, and to repeat this study in other locations. This new approach is worth investing in as it is cost effective for such a variety of applications currently required.

Read full text

Trends analysis of river bank erosion at Chandpur, Bangladesh: A remote sensing and GIS approach

Author(s) - Biswajit Nath, Sultana, Naznin, Paul, Alak

ABSTRACT
Bangladesh which is mainly formed by alluvial deposits faces riverbank erosion very often due to regular shifting of river channels. The present study has undertaken to study the trends of riverbank erosion at Chandpur district. Landsat TM & MSS Satellite image from 1980-1990 and Google Earth high resolution satellite imagery from 2002-2010 were used to delineate the historical changes of the river especially to the left bank alignment of the river course. The study revealed that for long time this area has been suffering with the erosion problem and shifting characteristics of Meghna River. Analysis also showed that in the history of last thirty years erosion rate was higher in the decade of 1990 to 2002 than other two decades and about 3517 sq meter area was eroded. But in the recent interpretation results shows deposition is higher than erosion.

Read full text

Morphometric analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) for sustainable development of hydropower projects in the lower Satluj river catchment in Himachal Pradesh, India

Author(s) - Nishant Vaidya, Jagdish Chandra Kuniyal, Rohit Chauhan

ABSTRACT
Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (RS&GIS) techniques are effectively being used in recent times as an important tool in determining the quantitative description of morphometry of a basin. This technique characterizes very high accuracy of mapping and measurement of morphmetric analysis. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the GIS based morphometric activities of the Lower River Satluj catchment including parts of Kinnaur, Shimla, Kullu, Mandi and Bilaspur districts in Himachal Pradesh, India. Morphometric analysis of drainage system requires delineation of all existing streams. Based on GIS morphometric assessment, buffer zone of 10 km either of the River Satluj was identified. This area is lying from northeast to southwest from Nathapa village in Kinnaur district to Bilaspur town in Bilaspur district. The total length of River Satluj included under present study was 165 km. The total length of stream segments is maximum under first order streams and this length decreases as the stream order increases. It is also observed that there is a decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases. It is observed that low drainage density is in the lower Satluj catchment. With the help of GIS, it is observed that highest number of streams shows the maximum opportunities for the hydroelectric power projects in the middle Satluj catchment. While the lower drainage density indicates that the catchment has permeable sub-soil.

Read full text

A small discussion on microwave application for groundwater exploration: A review

Author(s) - Singh A.N, Anupam Singhal, Rajiv Gupta

ABSTRACT

This review article presents the electromagnetic (EM) technique are the most common implemented methods by geophysicist for mineral exploration.  The use of EM technique in environmental and engineering application is also established, especially in detection of contaminant plumes and exploration of waste sites in recent. Throughout the globe, the EM is used for groundwater related studies along with its mother work in mineral exploration. Airborne EM is appropriate for large scale and efficient groundwater surveying. Due to dependency of the electric conductivity on different material present (as clay, rock, water, sand) in the host body and the mineralization of the water. EM system are suitable for providing information of the aquifer structure, and water quality respectively.

Read full text

Identification of urban sprawl dynamics in a rapid growing city using GIS

Author(s) - Srimanta Gupta, Moupriya Roy, Arpan Sarkar

ABSTRACT

Urban development is a phenomenon in developing countries. The measurement and monitoring of urban sprawl is crucial for government officials and planners who urgently need updated information and proper planning tools. In this study attempts have been made to identify, characterize and quantify the sprawl by the use of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing techniques. The Remote Sensing software PCI Geomtica V10.1 and satellite image (IRS-P6, LISS-4MX, Date: 7th January, 2008) is used in this work. Calculation of Shannon’s Entropy from the remotely sensed data can efficiently identify and characterize the urban sprawl. In this study, using the population data of Bardhaman Planning Area in 2011, the a-population density, b-population density and the distance (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 km) from the urban centre are chosen as influencing factors of urban sprawl. These analyses find the individual influence of a and b-population density and the distance from the urban centre on the sprawl phenomenon. The equations involving the distance term clearly show that the percentage of built-up area decreases as the distance from the urban core increases. These regression analyses only reveal the individual effects of a single influencing factor on sprawl. To sum up their influences on sprawl, a multivariate regression analysis has to be undertaken. The study finds a moderately dispersed built-up land development in Bardhaman Planning Area in 2011. It is predicted to be getting more dispersed in 2021 with a 24.6% increase in built-up land.

Read full text

Visual change detection study of some of the urban areas of Assam, India using Remote Sensing

Author(s) - Shukla Acharjee, Uttam Goswami, Ranjan Saikia

ABSTRACT

Remote Sensing is an efficient tool for change detection of land cover/forest cover/ urban mapping incorporating satellite imagery. It not only provides us with the extents but also indicates some cultural, political and ecological impacts due to which the changes have occurred or land cover is tempered. The images indicate such changes in the urban areas of Assam. From these images the severity and extent of deforestation is an eye-opener. In Assam along the Brahmaputra and the riverine tracts of its tributaries, several cities are selected where the extent and severity of deforestation is high. These cities belong to the districts of Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, Sivasagar, Jorhat, Golaghat, Nagaon, and Kamrup all along the river. The urban sprawl area is studied taking 1974 and 2009 Landsat imageries using ArcGIS online explorer. It has been found that vast changes occurred due to migration of the people to cities in search of jobs and cultural advantages, and this has resulted in the formation of huge urban areas and surrounding periurban environs. But its effects are impacting the quality of life in every region of Assam, in the large cities and small towns. The present trend is to rapidly develop farms, agricultural land and forests into housing developments or strip malls. And the rate of development is accelerating. As a result, people suffer from increased traffic congestion, longer commutes, increased dependence on fossil fuels, crowded schools, worsened air and water pollution, threatened surface and ground water supplies, lost open space and wetlands, increased flooding, destroyed wildlife habitat, higher taxes, and dying city centres. Moreover, sprawl is creating a hidden debt of unfunded infrastructure and services, social dysfunction, urban decay and environmental degradation.

Read full text

Monitoring meteorological and agricultural drought dynamics in Barind region Bangladesh using standard precipitation index and Markov chain model

Author(s) - Jahangir Alam A.T.M, Sayedur Rahman M, Saadat A.H.M

ABSTRACT

The Barind region of Bangladesh suffers from frequent drought due to poor and delayed rainfall in pre monsoon and monsoon season. In the present study details analysis of rainfall data has been carried out for the years 1971-2010. Two well known drought indices, Standard precipitation index (SPI) has been used to evaluate the precipitation deficit, and Markov chain model used to quantify the drought in agricultural extent. Details analysis of spatio-temporal drought dynamics during Pre-Kharif (pre-monsoon) and Kharif (monsoon) have been carried out through drought indices map generated in a GIS (Geographical Information System) environment. Analysis and interpretation of these maps evaluate that meteorological drought is not always correspond to agricultural drought and a chronic agricultural drought can be occur because of a limited rainfall deficit. The study also identified that there is a statistically significant temporal correlation between SPI and Markov chain drought indices but spatial correlation is poor in pre monsoon season. In the Barind region meteorological drought shows a similar pattern in pre monsoon season but in monsoon season rainfall deficits shifts its position time to time and in certain pockets it is more frequent. In agricultural sphere, the Markov chain shows a very chronic pattern during pre-monsoon season in the entire area but in monsoon it behaves like meteorological drought.

Read full text

Tank rehabilitation index for prioritization of lakes in semi arid regions - Geospatial approach

Author(s) - Nagarajan R

ABSTRACT

Numerous tanks were constructed and used for irrigation purposes in southern India. With the advent of canal and ground water system of irrigation, they were neglected and found to be in non-usable condition. These types of systems are considered as one among the drought mitigation efforts in semi-arid regions for sustainable development. Tank Rehabilitation Index was developed based on the physical condition of catchment, command and tank water spread areas, toward prioritizing tanks for development.

Read full text

Land Use/Cover change and its implications for Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India

Author(s) - Chandel Vishwa B.S., Brar Karanjot Kaur, Kahlon Simrit

ABSTRACT

Large scale changes in the land cover/land use have been effected by humans due to their technological prowess. The Himalayas contain a variety of fragile environments that could be vulnerable to these changes. This work attempted to analyse the change in landuse/land cover as an indicator of land degradation and increased risk of disasters using multi-temporal satellite imageries of LANDSAT and IRS for the period 1972-2005 in the western Himalayan district of Kullu which is a distinct geo-physiographic unit dominated by the river Beas. The area has undergone drastic land use/ land cover changes in the last three decades. Land cover changes are manifested in terms of decreasing permanent snow cover areas and forest degradation with respect to decreasing forest density. Landuse changes are associated expansion, intensification and encroachment of horticulture and settlements on natural landscape. The latter are also responsible for increased vulnerability as most of the expansion has taken place in physically vulnerable areas especially in the proximity of rivers. Enhanced vulnerability in the face of natural disasters and associated damages become a distinct possibility in the light of these changes. The scenario is more worrisome for such a sensitive landscape which forms a part of a major river basin. In a situation of changing climate, these changes assume heightened importance.

Read full text

Land use and cover change assessment using Remote Sensing and GIS: Dohuk City, Kurdistan, Iraq (1998-2011)

Author(s) - Chandel Vishwa B.S., Brar Karanjot Kaur, Kahlon Simrit

ABSTRACT

Land cover undergoes continuous changes around the world, especially in highly populated areas. This phenomenon can be attributed to human activities including population growth and the need of more housing. Dohuk, like many other cities in Iraq, has undergone a rapid urban growth mainly due to the population growth after 2003. With the absence of efficient urban planning systems and regulations in the past, this city has witnessed uncontrollable urban growth with adverse environmental impact. This growth has encroached upon peripheral agricultural lands, caused considerable lack of open spaces, and resulted in a degraded urban environment, e.g. higher proportion of concrete and asphalt surfaces and increased temperature in summer. This paper follows an integrated approach of using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) to measure and analyze the urban growth in Dohuk city over three periods of time (1998, 2007, 2011). Its main goals are to demonstrate the effective use of such modern techniques in mapping, identifying, and assessing land use/land cover (LULC) changes and urban growth trend and in addressing the current lack of urban growth information by providing relatively accurate data to help the planners in identifying the driving forces behind current LULC changes and in managing the urban growth in a more systematic manner. Spatial patterns of LULC change were identified through LULC classification and change detection analyses conducted on multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Three Landsat satellite images for the study area for 1998, 2007 and 2011 were processed and classified into three LULC categories: Vegetation, Barren Land, and Urban/Built-up Land. The results show a remarkable increase in the urban/built-up area with corresponding decreases in the barren land and vegetation areas during 1998 and 2011. The paper also demonstrates that the city is growing rapidly which could assimilate more agricultural and rural areas.

Read full text

Environmental monitoring of estuaries: Estimating and mapping various environmental indicators in Matla estuarine complex, using Landsat TM digital data

Author(s) - Ray R, Mandal S, Dhara A

ABSTRACT

The spatial and temporal distribution of suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a and total phosphorus were estimated and mapped with various degrees of success in Matla Estuary using satellite (Landsat Thematic Mapper) imagery. All the indicators exhibit a similar spatial pattern within the estuary. High values are found at both the saltwater and freshwater ends of the estuary, and low values are found in the mixing zone. The pattern is thought to be due to the influence of suspended solids and turbidity on the optical characteristics of water in this environment. The distribution of suspended solids and turbidity are influenced by the flood–ebb intervals, the sedimentation processes and the internal topography of the estuary. All of the predicted values are consistent with those reported in the literature.

Read full text

A geospatial approach for assessing and modeling spatial accessibility of the primary health centers in the tribal talukas of the Vadodara district

Author(s) - Bindu Bhatt, Janak P Joshi

ABSTRACT

Good health is a prerequisite for global livability of man, and it is a critical component of universal needs, hence a need for equitable distribution of health facilities is a factor for sustaining the population. Essentially, the challenge in many countries is to reach the whole population with adequate health care services and to ensure their utilization. Many peripheral Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities are under used, because of the poor services they provide, lack of access, and willingness. The present study emphasizes on the role of geospatial technique for assessing the spatial pattern of primary health care facilities as well as provides frame work for planning sustainable health care facilities in tribal Talukas of Vadodara district. The objectives are fulfilled by application of GIS and related spatial analytic techniques for describing and understanding the spatial organization of health care, examining its relationship to health care service and access, and exploring how health care delivery can be improved.  Nearest Neighborhood Analysis, Network Analysis and Weighted Sum Analysis have been employed for assessing and modeling spatial accessibility of PHC locations. The travelling time and travelling distances bands are obtained from the service area analysis with impedance calculated for the travelling time and travelling distance.The distributional pattern and the connectivity network influence the service in question, largely due to sparse distribution of tribal population occupying forest area. The analysis suggest that the population of the study area can optimally  be accommodated by allocating only a few new facility but emphasis has to be given to improving the connectivity especially in the inaccessible area which are rendered as dark zone on the basis of  poor road connectivity. There is the scope of reshuffling and allocating new PHCs.

Read full text

Error reduction in GPS datum conversion using Kalman filter in diverse scenarios

Author(s) - Swapna Raghunath, Malleswari B.L, Karnam Sridhar

ABSTRACT

The coordinates of a location obtained from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver depend on the type of environments. This paper discusses the errors in GPS coordinate conversion from the World Geodetic System 84 (WGS84) to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system, in different environments and their reduction using Kalman filter. 30 samples of positional coordinates, each for three different cases i.e open area, amidst tall buildings and area having heavy vehicular traffic, have been collected, with the time interval between two successive samples being 1 to 2 minutes. The samples were collected using a Garmin eTrex GPS receiver, which gives the coordinates of a location in both the WGS84 and UTM formats. The collected samples clearly indicated a greater variation in the coordinates for the location surrounded by tall buildings and the location which had a heavy flow of vehicular traffic as compared to the open area without any obstacles. The variation in coordinates can be attributed to multi path errors that occur due to the presence of tall buildings and moving vehicles. After applying a Kalman filter to the UTM values, a considerable improvement in their consistency has been observed.

Read full text

Prioritization of sub-basins of Ghataprabha River using morphometric parameters

Author(s) - Rajat Kumar Panda, Nagarajan R

ABSTRACT

Drainage morphometric analysis of river basins indicates the prevailing hydrological processes. Drainage lines of the Ghataprabha River, has been demarcated from SRTM DEM and substantiated with the thematic maps. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used in integrating the data and geo-referencing. Areal, linear, drainage length and density and relief parameters were determined. Surface storage potential of individual sub-basins was assessed using the morphometric and terrain parameters and prioritized for development.

Read full text

Application of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in flood vulnerability mapping: Case study of River Kaduna

Author(s) - Muhammad Isma’il, Iyortim Opeluwa Saanyol

ABSTRACT

Adequate geographic information on hazards and areas vulnerable to hazards is required to be able to prepare for disasters. Flood vulnerability mapping is fundamental in flood risk management because it identifies areas vulnerable to flood disaster. In Nigeria, flood maps for many areas are lacking and the available ones are obsolete. Recent flood disasters along River Kaduna in Nigeria has claimed many lives and properties, and threatened the ecological biodiversity. This study applies remote sensing and GIS techniques to produce flood map of the Middle Course of River Kaduna. The Middle Course of the river is considered due to its very large area which passes through Kaduna metropolis and its potential to cause devastating effect to communities around the basin in the event of flood disaster. Using High resolution imagery, a Digital Elevation Model was developed with ArcGIS to identify flood prone areas along the Middle Course of the river. A flow accumulation model was created using the DEM and the DEM was reclassified into high risk, moderate risk and low risk zones using equal interval of separation based on elevation. This was overlaid on the map of the area to produce a vulnerability map of the area. The study also conducted interviews with a sample of residents of certain areas that are at risk from flooding to identify elements-at-risk of flood. We discovered that a flood map can be used effectively in public enlightenment, disaster response planning and flood risk management. 

Read full text

Microwave radiometric estimation of excess electrical path - an overview

Author(s) - Karmakar P.K , Mondal S, Sanda P.K, Machado L.A.T

ABSTRACT

The most promising technique available for making the vapor measurement is the use of passive microwave radiometry. The dual frequency technique for taking care of unwanted signal from non-prcipitable liquid water is the world-wide accepted technique. Keeping these in mind, an overview has been presented for the radiometric estimation of propagation delay of the microwave signal. This review covers the basic aspects to be taken care of for the measurement. The propagation path delay in temperate and tropical locations is highlighted along with the contribution of water vapor in base line determination.

Read full text

Digital image processing and geospatial analysis of landsat 7 ETM+ for mineral exploration, Abidiya area, North Sudan

Author(s) - Sami O. El Khidir, Ibrahim A. A. Babikir

ABSTRACT

Digital data of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+7) was used in mineral exploration investigations for the area around Abidiya area, North Sudan. The studied area consists of Precambrian crystalline basement rocks. The oldest geologic unit comprises basic and ultrabasic rocks associated with metacherts overlain by island arc-related metavolcanosedimentary sequences, these units have been overlain by supracrustal metasediments and intruded by magmatic granitic intrusions. Regional structures manifested by the Nakasib suture and Keraf shear zones. Several digital image processing “DIP” techniques applied on the multispectral bands (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 7) were demonstrated in the context of geological mapping and mineral exploration. Dual techniques of analyses have been carried-out to enhance and delineate the alteration zones related to gold mineralization. Mineralization zones can be identified by their spectral signatures of the alteration products iron oxides, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, carbonates and quartz-feldspars minerals. Alteration map have been produced based on the band ratio techniques produced from Sabin’s band ratio color composite image (bands 5/7, 3/1 and 3/5 in the R G B, respectively). Another alteration map produced by using the Feature Oriented Principal Selection technique (FPCS), named as Crosta alteration color composite image. The Crosta image based on a selective principal component analysis for some bands. Both alteration images have been supervised classified and vectorized. Geospatial analysis of the vectorized layers proved to support the demarcation of the mineralization zones. These zones are aligned with the sheared and metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic and metacherts, and controlled by the shear fractures. The metasomatic replacements associated with the shear activities could be responsible for enhancing the mineralization in this area, which gave high signals in the alteration map.

Read full text

One decade hydro meteorological data assessment through statistics, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, South India

Author(s) - Venkat Raman A.T.V.R, Gurugnanam B, Arunkumar. M

ABSTRACT

The study has been made to detail an account on the environment through rainfall for the area of dindigul using meteorological data for recent decade from the collected data of the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). All the seasons does not given significant difference in it whereas there is an important note that in 2003 winter were accounted abnormal before the tsunami year 2004 in dindigul. However there could not be a notable relation to the area, the abnormal changes on season in a particular time before a natural process has to be view focused. The graphical methods are clearly revealed the characteristics of rainfall in season wise, annual, and in month wise to brief them in it. Through the histogram curves, it have explained the distribution of the rainfall by the seasons and revealed that monsoon and winter distributed positively. Month wise classifications shown the importance of denser details could enable the broad view of understanding. The correlation implemented that there was a negative relationship with all the seasons among each other. The sudden change in a particular year and season migration has to be looking through properly by monitoring with more importance to prevent the future. Harvesting rain in the monsoon and when ever good rain, could be a moderate to the area. Depletion in climate change has to be to make aware to prevent and predict for the future.

Read full text

Climatic balance on coastal ecosystems in Gulf of Mannar: Geoclimatic techniques

Author(s) -Muthukrishnan A, Aruchamy S, Banukumar K, Alaguraja P

ABSTRACT

This region is defined here as Tuticorin Coast, India, and their outlying islands. Tuticorin Coast climate is strongly influenced by the surrounding sea water. Key climatic features include tropical cyclones and monsoons in entire; migratory equatorial storm systems in the west, including mainland; and the temperature oscillation phenomenon, which causes floods and prolonged droughts, especially in southern part of Tuticorin Coast. Unfortunately, the Tuticorin Coast has well-developed coastal ecosystem (geomorphological landforms on the land and sea side) is dominated by coastal climate, it reaching elevations of 2-28m. Tuticorin Coast, the area for the present study is located in the south eastern coastal zone of Tamil Nadu State in India. It lies between 8°4’49” N – 9°22’20” N latitudes and 78°3’56” E-79°26’6” E longitudes, covering an area of 1437.20Sq.km. Much of the study area is undeveloped and retains a wide array of coastal land forms in near natural condition. However, there are a number of residential communities, primarily on the very near to the coast, that have altered the climate and ecosystem processes. The controlled inlets at either end of the coast are a type of interactive feature that have particular roles in the passage of land along the shore. Thus, the ecosystem characteristics and configuration of the coast are products of a suite of natural processes, complemented by human actions. This paper describes the coastal ecosystem were drawn from remotely sensed data and checked the doubtful areas in the field. Tuticoirn coastal zone has been classified into three major origin of ecosystems such as Fluvial,(deep buried pediment, natural levee, river, alluvial plain, flood plain, deltaic plain and delta), Fluvio-Marine identified in the study area are estuary and shoal and Marine origin (sandy plain, coastal plain, beach ridge-swale complex, stabilized dune, coastal dune, sandy beach, marine terrace, spit, cliff, sand bar, creek, salt flat, mud flat, tidal flat/tidal inlet, tombolo, island, lagoon/paleo lagoon, and coral reef) based on theoretical explanations and image interpretation elements. The region's climatic trends are consistent with those of other parts of the world.

Read full text