Abstracts of Volume 4 Issue 2, 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 4, NO 2 - 2013 - November 2013

ABSTRACTS

Studies on textural characteristics of Erra Kalva River, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, East coast of India

Author(s) - Karuna Karudu.T,Jagannadha Rao.M, Ganesh.B, Avatharam.P, Naidu.A.G.S.S

ABSTRACT

The detailed textural study of Errakalva river (lat. 160 50' - 170 20' N: long. 810 0'- 810 40' E) has been carried out. A total of forty samples from thirteen stations were collected along the river profile from different locations indicate that the sediments possess a mean grain size range of granule to medium sand; moderately sorted to poorly sorted; very coarsely skewed to very finely skewed; very platykurtic to very leptokurtic in nature. The area of sediment bar, channel bar sediment samples and depositional energy conditions were also studied.  Frequency Distribution Curves and scatter plots drawn between different textural parameters clearly established that the sediments are of unimodal nature and are having very coarse to medium sand (mean 1.5Φ). The sediments are deposited under tractive current conditions with dominant bottom suspension and rolling mechanisms.

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Studies on textural characteristics of Erra Kalva River, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, East coast of India

Author(s) - Gursewak Singh Brar

ABSTRACT

The term land use relates to the human activities or economic functions associated with a specific piece of land while land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land cover includes grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water, etc. The change in spatial pattern of any material related to land-use and land cover is called land-use and land cover change (LULCC) also known as land change. It is a general term for the human modification of Earth's terrestrial surface. The emergence of geospatial technology has provided an easy way to detect land use and land cover change. Remote sensing is an essential tool of land-change detection because it facilitates observations across larger extents of Earth’s surface in short time periods which is not possible by ground-based observations. GIS is further beneficial for analyzing land-use and land cover. In this study the emphasis on the role of remote sensing and GIS in detection of land-use and land cover. The area of Punjab Siwaliks (between river Satluj and Ghaggar) is selected for the study. Satellite imageries for the year 1989 and 2005 are used for this purpose. Changes are found everywhere in the study area and it is found that natural vegetation is losing its extent at a rapid rate..

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Application of hyperspectral data for Development of spectral library of mangrove species in the Sunderban Delta

Author(s) - Somdatta Chakravortty

ABSTRACT

Remote sensing has played a crucial role in mapping and understanding of the spatial pattern of mangrove forests and changes in its areal extent caused by natural disasters and anthropogenic forces. So far traditional pixel-based classification of multispectral imagery has been widely applied for broad mapping of mangrove covers. But the recent and more advanced hyperspectral data taken from sensors (like Hyperion) is expected to demonstrate the potential for reliable and detailed characterization of mangrove forests including species level classification. This paper demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral imagery for species level identification of mangroves in the Henry Island of Sunderban Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal. After pre-processing of hyperspectral data, the spectral signature of each species have been extracted from the Hyperion data after which a spectral library has been developed comprising the seven dominant mangrove species of the region namely Excoeocaria Agallocha, Avicennia Officinalis, Ceriops Decandra, Avicennia Marina  and  Phoenix Paludosa, Brugueira Cylindrica, Aegialitis.

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Suitability analysis for tourist infrastructures utilizing multi-criteria GIS: A case study in Al-Hada city, Saudi Arabia

Author(s) - Gomaa M. Dawod

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, GIS is widely recognized as a valuable decision support system that enables the determination of suitable spatial locations for a specific objective based on a group of criteria. This paper aims to utilize such a comprehensive approach for delineating suitable sites to set up future tourist infrastructures in Al-Hada city, southwest Saudi Arabia. Several recent databases have been gathered, integrated, processed, and analyzed for that city. Six criteria have been designed and applied for finding safe, homogenously-distrusted, and economical optimal locations for potential tourist facilities in the study area. A suitability map has been developed based on a weighted integration of the chosen six criteria.  The accomplished results show that there exist 124 candidate sites with a suitability index ranges from 5 to 10 on a 10-point scale. It is recommended that these findings being considered in the development plan of Al-Hada city, and the developed GIS mutlicriteria suitability analysis being applied for all Saudi tourist cities. 

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Rapid urban growth in the city of Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan Region:An integrated approach of GIS, Remote Sensing and Shannon Entropy application

Author(s) - Jambally Mohammed

ABSTRACT

Duhok, a mountainous city in Kurdistan Region of Iraq, has witnessed rapid urban growth over the past decade due to population growth and economic improvements. These factors have placed a great pressure on the lands because of the increased need for housing, and have been the major drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes. This, together with the absence of sound urban planning systems, has resulted in a rapid urban growth. Therefore, an effective planning system needs to be developed in order to maintain a systematic urban growth pattern and address the current situation. This requires timely identification and analysis of the urban growth trends by measuring and monitoring LULC changes. This study aims to measure and analyze the urban growth patterns in Duhok using four satellite Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries for 1984, 1998, 2007 and 2011, with an integrated application of remote sensing and GIS techniques, and statistical Shannon entropy (an urban sprawl index). It is also to provide the planners with reliable data for effective planning purposes. Urban/built-up area for each year was extracted and the entropy values were calculated on the basis of a locational factor (distance from the core city center) that was visualized by creating buffers of different sizes and forms. Different models of the entropy have been applied for measuring and analyzing the urban extent from 1984 to 2011, determining the growth patterns in terms of compactness and sprawl, and verifying the results. The entropy values obtained for different zones are almost closer to the threshold values indicating that the study area has been experiencing an increased sprawl in all directions since 1984 with its peak occurring on 1998-2007. Thus, the entropy method has been proved as an effective tool for identifying the urban growth pattern and the findings can help in preparing effective plans for a more systematic urban growth of the city.

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Monitoring volume fluctuations of Indian reservoirs from space

Author(s) - Ashish Sharma, Gaurav Ghodke, Murugesh Prabhu. T.S

ABSTRACT

Lakes and reservoirs, a prime source of water supply for many settlements, are to be monitored at regular intervals of time for efficient usage. But many of these are remote and inaccessible for regular supervision. Remote sensing has been a breakthrough in the field of surveying, making it possible to directly monitor the volume of these water resources from space. In this paper, we estimate the volume of selected reservoirs in India using radar altimetry data and optical satellite imagery (such as Landsat). Two prominent reservoirs Ujjani and Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar were selected for the volume estimation and monitoring. The estimated volume was compared with the ancillary data (published reports) and the results are promising for “Indian Reservoir Monitoring from Space”. We further developed a Quantum GIS plugin to support a fast and efficient reservoir volume monitoring with changing water-levels. The limitation of the methodology outlined is that the reservoir volume can be estimated only up to the deepest radar altimetry data available for the reservoirs of interest. The paper also outlines the commercial and scientific potential of this technology, particularly in Indian reference. Using satellite images with higher spatial resolution, the surface areas of the reservoirs could be more accurately measured and hence the volume computed

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Morphometric and Terrain analysis of Payaswani River Basin of Kerala and Karnataka States using GIS

Author(s) - Sukumar B, Ahalya Sukumar

ABSTRACT

Morphometry and terrain analyses are important in geomorphology where quantitative measurements are made on physical characteristics of landforms. It is done mainly to understand the structure, processes and evolution of landscape. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the morphometric aspects of streams and terrain characteristics of landforms of Payaswani river basin of Kerala and Karnataka states using GIS. It has an area of 1342 km2. Of which, 42.02 per cent of the total area is in Kasaragod district of Kerala state and 57.08 per cent in Karnataka state. Survey of India Topographic maps and SRTM data were used for the study. ArcGIS and Spatial Analyst Module were used for the study. Payaswani River is the 6th order stream in which there are 5643 streams available in the basin. Relief is varying between mean sea level west and 1100 meters in the south east. There are two planation surfaces at 100m and 200m height. Hundred meter surface occupy 52.7 per cent of the total area. Three to six degrees slope category is the predominant slope with 19.7 per cent. North direction slope occupy 17.7 per cent. Most of the area comes under erosional landforms. Bifurcation ratio indicates that there was neotectonic activity in the lower region of the basin. In general the landscape indicates structural control over the landform development.

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Landslide susceptibility zonation in Kukalthurai Halla watershed, Moyar sub-basin in Nilgiris mountains, South india  using Remote Sensing and GIS

Author(s) - Gomathi R, Ram Mohan V, Backiaraj S

ABSTRACT

Landslides occur frequently due to heavy rains in Nilgiri mountains in South India. Though, the landslide hazard is moderate, occurrence of landslide events lead to considerable loss of life, damage to property and disruption of communication. The death toll and damage to houses are increasing during the recent years necessitating the need for preparing a Landslide Susceptibility Zonation map in which safe zones wherein developmental activities can be taken up are identified. A Geographical Information System based study has been carried out in Kukulthurai Halla macro-watersheds in Nilgiri mountains using the Frequency Ratio (FR) method. The Zonation map prepared with 75% of the landslides was validated using the remaining 25% of the landslides.

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Evaluation of landuse / landcover dynamics of chilika catchment

Author(s) - Adikanda Ojha, Jajnaseni Rout, Samal. R.N, Rajesh. G, Pattnaik. A.K, Pritirekha

ABSTRACT

Land use and land cover is an important component in understanding the interactions of the human activities with the environment and thus it is necessary to be able to simulate changes. Empirical observation revealed a change in land use land cover classification in Chilika Catchment. In this paper an attempt is made to study the changes in land use and land cover in this Catchment over 40 years period (1975 ­2012). The study has been done through Remote sensing approach using SOI toposheet and LandSat imageries of 1975 and 2009, 2012. GIS software is used to prepare the thematic maps. Ground truth observations were also performed to check the accuracy of the classification. The present study has brought to light that
Landuse and landcover exerts considerable influence on the various hydrologic phenomenons such as interception, infiltration, evaporation and surface flow. Various aspects of hydrological problems (i.e. Rainfall-

Runoff modeling, Sedimentation studies, etc.) can be studied if information on landuse / landcover is available for a catchment. In the present study, a landuse / landcover maps of Chilika catchment for the years 1975, 99 and 2012 is prepared by Image processing and visual interpretation technique.

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Assessment and prediction of impact and effectiveness of watershed management practices on land use land cover in Seoni watershed, Madhya Pradesh using remote sensing and GIS

Author(s) - Dharmendra Singh, Satyendra Kuma, Deena Yadav, Ranjeet Kumar

ABSTRACT

This research work has been carried out to assess the impact and effectiveness of watershed management practices on land use land cover of the seoni watershed area with the help of satellite remote sensing and Geographic information system. Simultaneously the prediction (2021) of land use land cover conversion has also been done for the agriculture, forest, scrub and other classes (Including water bodies, fellow land, non-forest and settlement) using Cellular Automata Markove (CA-Markove) model. Landsat TM data of the year 1990, 2000 and 2011 has been used for the study of land use land cover changes. Semi-automatic unsupervised iterative self-organized data (unsupervised ISODATA) algorithm has been used to classify the satellite data. Forest, agricultural land, Water and non-forest were the broad land use/cover classes have been identified in the study area. Drastic change in the forest and agricultural area with a decrease in forest by 2541ha. and increase in the agricultural area by 2854ha. has been obtained since 1990 to 2011. This change analysis itself is showing impact and effectiveness of the watershed management practices over forest and agriculture respectively. Predictive modeling of the land use/cover conversion is showing similar results as obtained by the satellite data observations. Increase in the agricultural area by about 6.00% and decrease in the forest area by about 4.1% has been modeled via CA-Markove model. Model generation was based on the four land use/cover classes i.e. forest, net shown area (agriculture), scrub and other classes (including water bodies, fellow land, non-forest and settlement). Broad vegetation indices (SBI & NDVI) has been calculated and used for analyzing changes in forest, agriculture and soil condition. The hypothesis was that the soil brightness will decrease as an effect of soil moisture increase due to watershed management practices and same has been obtained during the year 1990 to 2000 but after this 10 consecutive drought year has disturbed the trend and the increased soil brightness frequency has been obtained during the year 2000 to 2011. NDVI analysis is showing improved vegetation condition and agriculture which would be the result of ground water recharge due to improved water harvesting as a result of watershed management practices although the rainfall was less.

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Cutting of hills and human tragedy: An example of law enforcement loophole in the southeastern region of Bangladesh

Author(s) - Md. Mahbub Murshed

ABSTRACT

Indiscriminate hill cutting in the southeastern part of Bangladesh especially in the port city of Chittagong has become a major environmental and humanitarian issue. The massive illegal hill cutting by both the powerful and powerless section of society, took a grave turn in recent years in Bangladesh, threatening environment, natural beauty and biodiversity of the region having wonderful uniqueness. Along with the environmental degradation, this hill cutting is going on in full swing in broad daylight even at the expense of the human lives. In recent years, landslides and mudflow after heavy monsoon rains are occurring frequently as the consequences of unwise and unplanned hill cutting in the city causing death of valuable lives incurring a considerable amount of property loss. Over the last five years, mudslide buried several hundred people alive across the Chittagong hill areas. Despite the fact that hill cutting without proper legalization is banned, the activity goes on without fear of reprisal as the law enforcement shows its looseness. The present paper focuses on the good governance as well as the proper implementation of laws to save the hills of Chittagong and thus saving the human rights.

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Determination of an optimal interpolation technique to represent the spatial distribution of groundwater quality at urban and peri-urban areas of Proddatur, Y.S.R district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Author(s) - Jagadish Kumar. M, Sunitha. V, Ramakrishna Reddy. M

ABSTRACT

The preliminary aim of the present study is to analyze the spatial variability of ground water quality parameters in Proddatur, India. The spatial variability and the GIS maps can be used for management of ground water quality and effective reduction of pollution related hazards can be achieved.Geostatistical analysis is a quintessential commodity to understand the ground water quality parameters and their physico chemical characteristics. The present study was conducted to analyse and assess the groundwater quality from samples collected from 43 bore holes in Proddatur, YSR district of Andhra Pradesh. Physico chemical analysis was conducted on the samples and spatial statistical analysis was performed on the data procured. Geostatistical techniques such as Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Ordinary Kriging were employed to generate surface maps after selecting the best fit among the three techniques. The key physico chemical parameters such as pH, Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Chloride (Cl-), Fluoride (F-) and Alkalinity were systematically analysed and statistical treatment was conducted on them. A multivariate analysis was also conducted.

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Quantifying the dynamic changes of landuse and landcover in Neil Island, Andaman and Nicobar, India

Author(s) - Saravanan, Dharanirajan.K, Yuvaraj.E, Karpoorasundarapandian.N

ABSTRACT

The present study aims at assessing the dynamics of land use land cover change of Neil Island in Andaman using remote sensing and GIS. Survey of India (SOI) toposheet (1979) was used to prepare the base map. Geocoded satellite imageries 1D LISS III (1998) and IRS – P6 LISS III (2010) on 1:50,000 scales were visually interpreted based on image characteristics. The image characteristics were studied using interpretation keys. Neil Island covers a total area of 18.90 sq. km. and a shore length of 18.6 km. It possesses various resources such as forests, corals, mangroves, creeks, sandy beaches and agricultural lands. The present status of these resources is as follows: Coral reef has an areal extent of 402.03 ha. km., sandy beaches cover 21.60 ha., mangroves have an areal extent of 5.27 ha., reserved forests cover 959.03 ha., and settlement with agricultural land covers an area of 350.98 ha. Coral reefs and mangroves are extremely productive ecosystems with a rich biodiversity. While the fringing reef of this island has decreased by 17.00 ha., the mangrove forests exhibit a decreasing trend with a loss in area of 2.64 ha. Sandy beach area has increased by 10.12 ha., This study shows many of the resources are on the decline and change in the landuse. Thus this study reveals that GIS and remote sensing are extremely useful tools for assessing LULC within limited time durations.

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