Abstracts of Volume 5 Issue 1, 2014

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 5, NO 1 - 2014 - August 2014

ABSTRACTS

Landslide monitoring by using sensor and wireless technique: a review

Author(s) - Govind Singh Bhardwaj, Mayank Metha, Md. Yeasin Ahmed, Mohammod Aktarul Islam Chowdhury

ABSTRACT

The sensor is a major device in electronics for measuring physical data from the environment. Immense applications in the field of an early warning system in space sciences, atmospheric sciences & aeronautical engineering have been explored by various workers. It has been realised that landslide is a frequently occurring natural hazard in the hilly terrains of India; consequent upon every year there is a great loss of life and property. Sensor can be used for the early prediction system of landslide and it could help in preventing the millions of the losses due to natural hazard. In the direction of the landslide prediction, sensor can play a great role, where sensor connected with wireless protocol can make it very useful for remote areas landslide mapping, detection, analysis and  prediction etc. A wireless sensor network consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, including temperature, sound, pressure, etc. is found be worthwhile.

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Deformation of the Jambudwip Island of Sundarban Region, Eastern India

Author(s) - Mridul Das

ABSTRACT

Jambudwip Island is well known for its drastic change of shape and the eviction of homelands of the transient folk-fishermen involved in the fishing activities in this island since 1955. Due to various natural causes the shape of this island is deforming and the total land area is reducing at the rate of 1.32 % per annum. Spatio-temporal changing pattern of this island since 1973 has been framed on the basis of LANDSAT images and the GIS technology. A comprehensive study has been done on the effective climatic parameter like sea water temperature, frequency of cyclone, rainfall amount, sea level change, etc. as their natural causes. Eviction of fishing community by the government is becoming a major social issue for such excessive land erosion so controversy has arisen on the natural and the social causes of this Island’s deformation.  

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Geostatistics of pollutant gases along high traffic points in Urban Zaria, Nigeria

Author(s) - Aliyu Y.A, Musa I. J, Jeb D. N

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at utilizing Geo-information technology in assessing the ambient air quality along some busy roads in urban Zaria. Samples were collected from ten (10) different sites. Parameters measured include: PM10, CO, NO2 and NH3 were measured in this study. Also included were: temperature, humidity and traffic volume/composition. The results displayed in a hazard map indicates that the concentrations of pollutants measured at all sampling points, with exception of the control site were within and above the hazard limits set by FEPA. This reveals that transport-related pollution in urban Zaria can be potentially hazardous to health. The main finding of this research is the comparison between spatial and non-spatial analysis approaches, which indicates that correlation analysis and buffer analysis of GIS using the concentration levels of detected air pollutants is relative method for assessing the health effects of air pollution.

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Quantification of geologic hazard and vulnerability for Chennai city, India

Author(s) - Ganapathy G.P, Rajawat A. S

ABSTRACT

Quantification of geologic hazard and vulnerability is an important tool for planners and decision makers, when planning for a future potential earthquake particularly in major cities.  Chennai city is one of the well urbanized and densely populated areas of India, where the majority of buildings are reinforced concrete cement structures containing three to four stories.  The metropolitan city like Chennai would require more attention when planning for such earthquake scenarios. The present paper aims to study and understand the seismic hazard and vulnerability of the Chennai city’s built environment and infrastructure facilities due to earthquakes.  The seismic hazard of the city is assessed by integrating geological and geotechnical parameters in GIS platform.  A pilot seismic vulnerability study is carried out in the densely populated built areas of the city.  A first level rapid visual screening study of buildings is carried out for part of the city.   The vulnerability on infrastructure viz., road, railway line, bridges, underground pipelines are mapped using GIS techniques.  The seismic vulnerability of part of the city is quantified by integrating the seismic hazard over the built environment and infrastructure details.  The outcome of study will be helpful in earthquake preparedness as well as during the emergencies in focusing and prioritizing rescue and relief operations.

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Computing pit excavation volume using Multiple Regression Analysis

Author(s) - Ragab Khalil

ABSTRACT

Volume estimation of borrow pits is common application in civil Engineering. Several methods for volume estimation have been presented in literature. In general, they rely on a specific polynomial to fit the surface heights. Practically, each site’s topography is unique and may not follow that polynomial. In this paper, regression analysis to find the most suitable equation that fit each site is presented. Using numerical examples, results from the proposed approach are presented and accuracy compared with existing methods.

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Impact of urbanization on land use/land covers change using Geo-spatial techniques

Author(s) - Nitin N. Mundhe, Ravindra G. Jaybhaye

ABSTRACT

Urbanization is the method of urban areas growth, which result in population growth, increase of built-up area, high density of population and it also psychological stage of urban way of life. Uncontrolled momentum of urbanization and land use/ land cover change raises many issues which might have both positive and negative impacts like unauthorized urban sprawl, loss of agricultural land, high land values and other related problems. The monitoring of urbanization is vital role of planner, management, governmental and non-governmental organizations for implementing policies to optimize the use of natural resources and accommodate development at the same time minimizing the impact on the environment. The present research work aims to analyzing the changes that occurred in land use /land cover (LU/LC) over a time span of last four decades using modern technology like remote sensing and Geographical Information System. The geographical extend of Pune city is 243.84 km².  It consists of 14 administrative wards with the total population of 3.11 million (Census, 2011). The spatio-temporal study of land use /land cover is carried out for 4 decades 1973 to 2011 using remotely sensed data like Landsat MSS (1973), TM (1992), ETM+ (2001) and TM (2011). Utilizing hybrid classification method for interpretation and on-field validation, it has been found that the built-up area of Pune city increased 1973 to 2011 by 43.43 percent from 28.50 km² to 155.99 km². Also, the areas under vegetation, water bodies, agriculture land and fallow land have been decreased.

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Soil erosion vulnerability mapping using remote sensing based MMF rule in parts of Coimbatore and Tiruppur districts – Tamil Nadu, India

Author(s) - Pandian.M, Kumanan.C.J

ABSTRACT

Soil erosion assessment is a capital-intensive and time-consuming exercise. A number of parametric models have been developed to predict soil erosion prone zone at structural terrains, even though Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), and its updated or modified versions are most widely used empirical equation for estimating annual soil Loss. Morgan, Morgan and Finney 1984 proposed a model on field base information and estimation had yielded point-based accuracy values. But on carrying out its original form in conventional method like Remote Sensing (RS), it is quite varying in limits on measuring the hydrologic parameters on spatial scales .Even Some of the inputs of the model such as cover factor and to a lesser extent supporting conservation practice factor and soil erodibility factor can also be successfully derived from remotely sensed data.

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Morphometry and its implications to stream sediment sampling: A study on Wajrakarur Kimberlite field, penna river basin, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India

Author(s) - Rameshchandra Phani P

ABSTRACT

Morphometric analysis, including certain linear, areal and relief parameters, has been performed on watersheds covering pipes in the Wajrakarur kimberlite field (WKF) of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, using hydrological data in corroboration with lithological and structural information. In total, 64 morphometric parameters were calculated for the study area. Litho-structural set up revealed that drainage system is influenced by lineaments. Higher values of morphometric parameters like sinuosity index, bifurcation ratio, gradient ratio, ruggedness number, dissection index, Rho coefficient are indicative of trap site quality, in the study area. As a tool for conceptual understanding, morphometric analysis can be considered as a process step before planning indicator mineral sampling for a terrain, thereby deciphering the category of possible trap sites that can occur in the area of interest, before commencing the actual sampling programme.  Taking the WKF as a case, a relation between certain morphometric properties and plausible quality of indicator mineral trap site has been envisaged in this paper.

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Process dynamics and controls in two partially-confined rivers of upper Brahmaputra plain

Author(s) - Nabajit Hazarika, Apurba Kumar Das

ABSTRACT

This work quantifies channel processes in two partially-confined rivers of Upper Brahmaputra plain, namely, Gai and Simen and explores their controls. To achieve the objectives this study utilises RS-GIS, rainfall data, seismic data and field observations. Gai migrated back and forth within an extent of 5 km depicting a swinging migration pattern throughout the study period. Simen in its downstream reaches migrated eastward continuously during the study period resulting in river shortening and change in confluence point with Brahmaputra. A reversal in the rate of erosion and deposition is observed in the recent decades with deposition being more dominant. We analyse rainfall regime, seismicity and anthropogenic intervention to examine the dynamic basis of observed changes. Rainfall regime which is a major control of surface runoff did not show any significant change in the total and seasonal amount. Seismicity, another influential stimulus of geomorphic changes shows an overall increase. Complete evaluation of seismicity as a control of sediment dynamics requires detailed measurements across a range of timescales for which the technology and data is missing in this region making it difficult to specify the role of seismicity. Further, increase in seismicity is a global trend which is generally attributed to enhanced capacity of detection. The nature and spatial distribution of the observed geomorphic changes clearly indicates dominance of anthropogenic control in the observed process dynamics of these partially-confined rivers. The present work provides a systematic documentation of geomorphic controls from a data scarce region.

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Drainage characteristics of Manchi basin, Karauli district, Eastern Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques

Author(s) - Subah Rais, Akram Javed

ABSTRACT

An attempt has been made to study drainage morphometry of Manchi basin, which covers an area of 235.67 km².Drainage Map prepared from Survey of India (SOI) toposheet and later updated from IRS-1C (LISS III) imagery to examine drainage characteristics. ASTER data is used for preparing Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Slope map. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used in evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. Moderate drainage density 2.72 km/km² indicate that the area is underlain by permeable sub surface material and has coarse to moderate drainage texture. The mean bifurcation ratio of entire basin is 5.2 which indicate that the drainage pattern is little influenced by geological structures. Analysis of shape parameters- form factor, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, suggests that the basin is in an elongated shape. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of the basin is very high and the groundwater potential is meager. This study will be very useful for watershed management strategies and for planning rainwater harvesting structures within the sub-basin areas to conserve the natural resources.

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Analysis of flood risk inundation hazard in Birnin Kebbi town, Kebbi state, Nigeria

Author(s) - Mohammed Nanoh Bello,David N. Jeb

ABSTRACT

Flood is one of the most harmful disasters in the world, and it is significant to obtain reliable information on flood characteristics for disaster mitigation. This study analyzed flood risk inundation in Birnin Kebbi town by applying the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM data and some hazard remote sensing datasets (landsat) in the environment of GIS, which employs the simplified process representation capable of simulating the risk of flood hazard inundation. Digitizing was employed to extract the landuse/landcover features and the field observed flood data was used for the slicing operation. Hence all areas below the highest recorded 2012 flooded point (207m) were assumed to be completely submerged while areas above 207m were not flooded. This data was vectorized and the “flooded area” was extracted separately using the “SQL select” in ArcGIS environment. The “flooded area” layer was crossed with the LULC layer using the “intersection” tool in arcmap and was used to estimate the lulc affected by the flood event. The table was exported as “DBF” to estimate the damage extend in hectares and for further analysis. The result showed that the fadama agriculture and farmland are the most vulnerable to flood while a little portion of the settlement has encroached into the flooded areas

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Need for GIS based dengue surveillance with Google internet real time mapping for epidemic control in India

Author(s) - Palaniyandi M

ABSTRACT

The present effort is made for studying the essential of GIS based surveillance tool for dengue epidemic control in India. The dengue epidemic cases and the mortality caused by dengue has becomes essentially public health important in India, and the situation has become worst since, 2006. Dengue cases were clinically confirmed with thousands of cases and hundreds of deaths annually. India has highest record of 37070 dengue cases and 227 deaths across the country during 2012. The report of dengue epidemics is becomes daily news now days and it was reported from 24 states and Union Territories in India during 2012. The dengue epidemics were reported across the country during the period of April to November annually, however, the vulnerability of epidemics was reported between the periods of mid July to mid November of every year, since 2006. The environmental and climate variables are fuelling to creating conducing environment for profusion of dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. Albopictus). The information relevant to the geographical site specification of dengue vectors breeding habitats, vector abundance, vector density, etc., could be recorded using global positioning systems (GPS).  This information could be mapped and overlay on the thematic layers of climate variables (Temperature, relative humidity, saturation deficiency and Rainfall) under the geographical information systems (GIS) software platform for spatial analysis (cluster analysis, nearest neighbourhood analysis, fussy analysis, probability of maximum and minimum likelihood analysis etc.,) for prediction of disease epidemics 7 days in advance.  The Google based internet GIS may perhaps, used to mapping real time situation and updating the information with online data base connectivity (ODBC) in the GIS engine for providing the real time information relevant to the dengue epidemics, and hence, the appropriate precaution measures will be taken to  control dengue epidemics in the country early in advance. 

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Systematic mineral exploration studies in parts of Veligallu Schist belt, YSR district, A.P., India

Author(s) - Raghu Babu K.

ABSTRACT

Systematic mineral exploration study involves conventional exploration techniques like identification of ore guides like stratigraphic, mineralogical, lithological, structural, geomorphological and geobotanical guides.  Subsequently, establishment and characterization of spectral signatures displayed by various minerals in the study area using a geocoded IRS P6 LISS III image will be done.  In preliminary studies the image corresponding to the study area is georectified with the Survey of India Toposheet No. 57J08.    In the present study, stratigraphic, mineralogical, lithological and geomorphologilogical guides will be recognized and thematic maps were prepared by visual interpretation technique and the same is digitized by using GIS software. The thematic maps thus prepared are then compared with the ground truth.  Then the spectral signatures were obtained by processing the image under material mapping and anomaly detection techniques for each mineral using USGS spectral library of ERDAS Imagine software. The spectral signatures of each mineral of USGS library obtained by the image processing are assigned to the location of the corresponding minerals in the study area by using GPS.  Brecciated auriferous quartz reef associated with sulphide mineralization is identified along with wall rock alteration in the form of perceive biotization, silicification, sulphidisation and chloritisation in Veligallu Greenstone Belt.  The study area shows old workings for extraction of gold and even shows pounding marks in flat rock beds around the villages in vicinity, which might have formed during process of winning gold from the host rock.  The Geophysical, Geochemical data will be accumulated from other sources as done by the GSI and other organizations for the order of comparison with the present results. 

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Assessment of land use and land cover changes in south Andaman Island using remote sensing and GIS

Author(s) - Yuvaraj E, Saravanan, Dharanirajan K

ABSTRACT

Remote Sensing and GIS techniques were used to study the landuse and landcover change in the South Andaman Island. The study assesses the spatial-temporal land use and land cover changes between 1979 and 2013 for the southern part of the South Andaman Island. IRS LISS IV satellite images were used to identify and map the various features of landscapes. In South Andaman Island the development of landuse is increasing steadily in the last three decades. The change in landuse prominently depends on the tourism, civil, defence and fishing sectors which plays an important economic role of development of the union territory. Settlement area developed from 1637 to 12083.55 ha from the last three decades varies from urban settlement with houses and major infrastructures where as rural settlement with adjacent vegetation. Port Blair is the capital city which connects through the mainland transportation, so the density of population is high around this city. Agricultural activities present in flat terrain and low lying areas which covers around 1345.31ha. Plantations practices in flat terrain, coastal low-lying areas and hilly slopes of the island by clearing dense forest 2266.08 ha. These landuse developments threat the island ecosystem and have major impacts on the forest, almost 9689.28ha of forest were cleared for the landuse purposes and nearly 492.94 ha of mangroves were cleared and degraded. The tourism and recreational activities increase stress on coral reefs and sandy beaches. Sandy beaches are the most threatened ecosystem in the study area exist only 38.52 ha. It is in need for the sustainable development of landuse in this island to protect the island ecosystem.

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Studies on heavy metals in industrial effluent, river and groundwater of Savar industrial area, Bangladesh by Principal Component Analysis

Author(s) - Faisal B.M.R, Ratan Kumar Majumder, Mohammed Jamal Uddin1, Mohammed Abdul Halim

ABSTRACT

A total number of twenty water samples of which seven groundwater, six river water and seven effluent samples were collected from Savar industrial area in Bangladesh for heavy metals analysis using ICP-MS system. The average concentration of Fe, Mn, Cr, Zn, As, Ni and Pb were 929.97, 101.01, 6.08, 33.36, 9.18, 2.03 and 3.99 mg/L in groundwater; 286.48, 37.65, 0.13, 9.18, 1.39, 1.53 and 1.26 mg/L in river water and 606.64, 72.71, 5.04, 25.05, 1.72, 2.37 and 1.56 mg/L in effluent, respectively. The average concentration of Cr, Mn, Ni, Fe, Pb, Zn and As exceed WHO and DoE, Bangladesh limits in relation to river water and groundwater.  The order of average heavy metal content was Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Ni>As>Pb in effluent water, Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>As in groundwater and Fe>Mn>Zn>Ni>As>Pb>Cr in river water. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component, cluster analysis and correlation matrix shows significant anthropogenic and geogenic intrusions of Fe, Mn, Cr, Zn, As, Ni, and Pb in river and groundwater in the study area. Significant positive correlation between Cr vs Zn, Cr vs As, Mn vs Fe, Mn vs As, and Zn vs Pb indicates their common origin, especially from industrial effluents and municipal wastes that are responsible for the enrichment of these variables as moving together in river water. On the other hand, strong positive correlation between Cr vs As and Ni vs Pb in groundwater reveal the anthropogenic sources of these variables. The high concentration of heavy metals in groundwater and river water may cause serious threat to public health as well as the aquatic environment.

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Channel bed aggradation in relation to channel Morphometry: A case study of river Jainti, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal

Author(s) - Debarshi Ghosh and Snehasish Saha

ABSTRACT

Channel behaviour is so dynamic in areas of foothills where it debouches over the sudden slope change but being carried with its huge quantity of load. Such loads may be of both weathered and fluviatile in character so far process is concerned. Morphology of a channel is shaped up by the aggradational mechanisms in the channel. It may be caused by the soil characters as exemplified in the present study area which is abundant of calcites and limestone-dolomitic compositions and which result into seepage of surface flows and outcome of ephemeral channels at times especially during wet seasons. Haphazard in-channel dumping resembling corrugated surface topography is accentuated by the falling of gravity propelled slides and incompetency of the channels to carry the burden downstream. In the present study reasoning behind such bed filling occurrences in relation to its morphometry has been carried out with geomorphological perspectives.

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