Abstracts of Volume 6 Issue 1, 2015

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 6, NO 1 - 2015 - August 2015

ABSTRACTS

Assessment of the proposed impact of post-office closure in Leicestershire (UK) using GIS-based network analysis

Author(s) -  Sa’ad Ibrahim, Dauda M. Lawal

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the impact of the proposed Post-Office closure in Leicestershire due to the Network Change Program, initiated to close down up to 2,500 Post Offices across the United Kingdom (UK). The paper explores the spatial relationships between Post Offices and their accessibility to different socio-economic groups in the area under investigation. Network analysis (OD Cost Matrix) was used to denote output areas as the origin (demand) and Post Offices as the destination (supply). The results of this analysis reveal that the number of post offices targeted by the government for closure is not attainable in this particular English county. When the results were linked to the county’s demographic profile and socio-economic data, only the first (part a) and last criteria were met before and after the closure of the Post Offices in this county. Over 99% of the total population of Leicestershire is found within three miles of their nearest Post Office. The total rural population within three miles of their nearest Post Office was recorded at over 97%. Thus, Post-Office accessibility for people in urban areas was recorded at less than 70%, compared to the government minimum criteria of 99% and 95%, for deprived urban areas and the sum total urban areas, respectively. The paper also argues that, although the criterion for rural areas was met, the government minimum standard criteria create a serious imbalance in terms of providing post offices to many rural dwellers. The study concludes by recommending ways for alternatives that minimize the said impact of the proposed closure.

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Assessment of the proposed impact of post-office closure in Leicestershire (UK) using GIS-based network analysis

Author(s) -  Sreedhar M, Shashivardhan Reddy P, Narender B, Muralikrishnan S

ABSTRACT

Stereoscopic depth perception plays a vital role in photogrammetry, as it enables the formation of a 3-D stereo model by viewing a pair of overlapping photographs. The stereo model can then be studied, measured and mapped. In this study, the stereoscopic measurements of images from Ultracam-D digital camera, acquired at 10cm GSD are investigated by carrying out repetitive measurements of various geometric features by an experienced photogrammetrist.  The features selected for measurements are having different contrast like dark tonal variations in shadows and bright tonal variations with bright background. The measurements are validated with that of ground values to evaluate the achievable horizontal and vertical accuracy. Traditional standards for map accuracy give the horizontal accuracy as 0.25mm of map scale and vertical accuracy in terms of contour interval. The study shows the images acquired with high radiometry and color information helps to measure the features in low contrast conditions with reasonable good accuracy. In this study the root mean square error (RMSE) achieved in different contrast conditions and for different geometrical features are 7.7cm in horizontal and 12.5cm in vertical. The results shows, by using 10cm GSD color data, geospatial information at 1:500 scale can be prepared with 0.5 m contour interval.

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Assessment of the proposed impact of post-office closure in Leicestershire (UK) using GIS-based network analysis

Author(s) -  Sana Zakir Hussain, Sujala Deepak Shetty

ABSTRACT

Spatial Data is usually big data and requires large amount of computing power, space and specialized features for its analysis. Thus, the scientists at ESRI came up with an open source project, GIS Tools for Hadoop on GitHub. The project aims at integrating the distributed computing power of Hadoop and the specialized geometry libraries provided by ARCGIS to perform Big Data Spatial Analysis. In this paper, we have further explored this ESRI Project on the Amazon EC2 cloud. Thus, we conclude that a trio of ArcGIS, Apache Hadoop and Cloud can miraculously improve the quality of spatial data analysis if given a chance

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A synergistic approach towards sustainable land resources development in the catchment of Upper Tunga project, Karnataka-using remote sensing and GIS techniques

Author(s) -  Jayakumar P. D, Govindaraju, Lingadevaru D. C

ABSTRACT

Natural resources are the wealth of any region and its proper utilisation is utmost concern for future management and developmental activities.  Considering the present day problems of watershed, an attempt has been made to prepare implementable land resource development plan for the catchment of Upper Tunga Project (UTP) in Karnataka.  The study area lies  between longitude 75o 25’ 24.386” E -75o 36’ 49. 296”E, and latitude 13o 51’ 16 . 145”N- 13o 44’19.085” N with an aerial extent of 1041.89 Sq Km. The thematic maps like LU/LC, Geomorphology, Slope and Lineaments were prepared using SOI Toposheets D43P5, D43P6, D43P7, D43P9 and D43P10 and updated using IRS P6 LISS III (23.5 m) data of year 2009(Path/Row: 98/64). The drainage morphometric parameters were extracted by ASTER DEM (30m) using ArcHydro tools with in ArcGIS environment.  From the analysis, out of 23 sub watersheds, Bailubadige, Heddur, Kakanahosudi, Muthinakoppa are high prone to erosion and Bailubadige, Hedduru, Kakanahosudi, Muttinakoppa, Sarigere are medium prone to erosion.  Quantitative hypsometric analysis, shows concave shape of the curve, which represents the old stage of the catchment with Hypsometric Integral 0.50, indicates the significant fluvial and slope wash processes of landforms.  Thus from the study, we realised optimal and sustainable development of resource is required to avoid any future problems. In this regard, site suitable soil conservation practice like Boulder check, Rubble check, Vegetative check, Contour bunds, Agro forestry, Afforestation, Social forestry, Silvipasture and Contour farming has been recommended according to Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) guidelines by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques.

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Sustainable watershed development of the Bandu village (India) watershed using advance geospatial techniques: A case study documenting the importance of Remote Sensing and GIS in developing nations

Author(s) -  Abhay Prakash, Krishnendu Banerjee, Bindeshwer Puran

ABSTRACT

India being a developing nation lacks the presence of an effective system for the built environment. There is inefficiency in the resource management sector and lack of proper planning has resulted in misuse of resources on a very large scale. In a developing nation like India, the major constraint that had hindered the sustainable usage of resources was the unavailability of state of the art facilities and spatial data and the subsequent processing tools. With the expansion and growth of the nation in the industrial and research front, emphasis is being laid on utilizing resources in an efficient and orderly way and this journal elucidates the significance of spatial data and data processing tools to help create a sustainable built environment. The study of water resources at the watershed scale is widely adopted as an approach to manage, assess and simulate these important natural resources. Watershed studies conducted using a GIS platform have demonstrated that the spatial analysis capabilities of GIS hold the key to improved watershed modeling techniques. The analytical muscle of GIS, combined with readily available digital elevation data, can be used to automate the watershed modeling process and provide a visual representation of the watershed’s response to existing conditions and proposed improvement scenarios. In this context the objective of the study is to document the role of GIS and Remote Sensing for the development of the Bandu Watershed, located in Eastern India, in the Paschimi Singhbhum District in the state of Jharkhand. To do so, a merged image from CARTOSAT-1 and LIS-4 Sensor (obtained from the directory at the Jharkhand Space Applications Centre, Government of India) was digitized using ArcGIS and a digital elevation model (DEM) was prepared which gave us the idea of the slope of the region. The subsequent drainage pattern was then chalked out and the Geological Planning Map or the final map was prepared integrating results from all the maps.

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Spatial Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Egypt's Northern Coast and Its Influence on the Geodetic Vertical Datum

Author(s) -   Hoda F. Mohamed

ABSTRACT

Globally, the rise of sea level has become a well-known accepted fact due to the global warming associated with the climate changes. The development of costal areas requires information on the sea level rise in terms of magnitude and rate. Additionally, the mean sea level is of a specific interest to the geodetic and surveying communities since it represents the vertical geodetic datum for heights. A tide gauge dataset has been built by the Egyptian authorities containing tide measurements at several locations in the northern coasts of Egypt.  The data have been analyzed, both statistically and spatially, in order to estimate and map the lateral variations of sea level over the Egyptian coasts. It has been found that the mean sea level rises westward  as moving from Port Said to Alexandria. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been applied for the spatial analysis of the sea level variations, and surface and contour maps have been developed. It is recommended that the developed maps should be applied in any future study for estimating sea level rise hazardous impacts. Such procedures will produce more reliable judgment of this phenomena of the climate changes. Additionally, the variations of mean sea level both in time and in space should be considered, and hence a new precise definition for the national vertical geodetic datum should be carried out. This re-definition is fundamental for accurate surveying and mapping activities in Egypt. Main tasks of this modernization process are proposed

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Use of Geo spatial tools in catchment treatment planning – A case study of Hidishing irrigation project, Odisha, India

Author(s) -  Mishra P, Panda G. K

ABSTRACT

In the present study, an  attempt has been made to characterize the natural resources and terrain condition of the catchment of the proposed Hidishing irrigation project using geo spatial tools like satellite remote sensing, Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System. Merged satellite image of Cartosat-1 & LISS-IV sensors and limited ground observations have been utilized for generating the thematic layers .The spatial layers have further been integrated and analysed using different geo spatial tools in GIS platform to generate alternate sustainable land use plan and watershed based suitable soil & water conservation measures for the catchment. The logic developed in this study to generate the site specific action plan items are based on watershed management concept.

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An assessment of the nature of urban growth and development in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria

Author(s) -  Robert Etim Ekpenyong

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the nature of urban growth and development in Akwa Ibom State. Using the Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies land cover maps of the area for the period 1986 and 2007 were produced. With these maps, the changes in the sizes, shapes and pattern of urban centres were modelled. The Remote sensing and Geographic Information System based analysis showed that, urban centres have grown by expansion and compaction. This growth pattern negates the concept of green city which planners the world over are trying to implement to make cities/urban areas sustainable. The approach is derived from theories and concepts such as sustainable development, sustainable cities, compact cities, green urbanism, sustainable urbanism, eco-cities to mention just a few which came into existence in the twentieth century. The paper concludes that, the nature of urban growth in Akwa Ibom State still leaves much to be desired as far as the concepts of sustainable city, green city, smart growth and compact city are concerned. That immediate action needs to be taken to control urban expansion/sprawl and preserve sufficient green spaces within urban areas.

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Vertical accuracy assessment of SRTM3 V2.1 and aster GDEM V2 using GPS control points for surveying & geo-informatics applications- Case study of Rivers State, Nigeria

Author(s) -  Menegbo E. M, Doosu P

ABSTRACT

This work investigates the vertical accuracy and relevance of two widely available digital elevation models (DEMs) in surveying and Geo-informatics using GPS (Global Positioning System) ground stations. The two DEMS assessed are SRTM3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission along with ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer). These datasets are accessed using GPS ground control points in Rivers State, Nigeria. Assuming error (vertical) is distributed normally; the 1.9600 factor is used to calculate the linear error confidence statistical level of 95%. Vertical data accuracy with confidence level of 95% of the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is use as the standard measure of accuracy for Vertical Accuracy positioning. Their vertical accuracy with reference to GPS control station used in this study as true heights shows the RMSE for ASTER GDEM V2 and SRTM3 V2.1 is ± 8.861734m and ± 6.307187m, with vertical accuracy of ± 17.362089m and ± 12.362086m respectively. The SRTM3 and ASTER is suitable for mapping(topographic) within interval of contour of 14m and 18m interval in the region Other includes geomorphologic activities, and estimating the terrain corrections in quasi­geoid modelling in Rivers State.

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Cropping Pattern of Koraiyar Watershed, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu

Author(s) -  Masilamani. P

ABSTRACT

In this paper an attempt has been made to analyses the cropping pattern at village level of Koraiyar watershed. The study area is covers around 660 sq.km. The study area consists of 93 villages and having   4, 22, 835 population in 2011 Census. This study is based on secondary data, collected from the District Statistical Office, Coimbatore for the year 2010-2011. Cropping pattern of the watershed data has been computed with the help of statistical and GIS techniques. For the calculation of crop concentration, location quotient method by Bhatia; crop combination analysis, Weaver’s statistical method, diversification index, Gibbs- Martin method haven been followed. These results really helpful to the planners to prepare proper land use planning for the development of watershed.

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