Abstracts of Volume 6 Issue 2, 2015

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES

VOLUME 6, NO 2 - 2015 - November 2015

ABSTRACTS

A study on crop combination regions in Palakkad district, Kerala

Author(s) -  Premakumar K, Anandan. R , Nagarathinam S.R.

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the crop combinations regions in Palakkad district of Kerala state. Palakkad district is known as “the granary of Kerala state” .Agriculture is the dominant economic activity and supports nearly 76% of the rural population of the district .Paddy, coconut, vegetables, rubber, fruits and spices and condiments are the principal crops cultivated in the district. Crop association reveals that the crops are mostly adjusted to the irrigation facilities and soils of the district. The ranking of crops and the application of crop combination analysis of Weaver’s (1954) and Raffiullah’s (1956) methods brought the existing possible crop combination regions and changes in crop associations in Palakkad district.

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An Analysis of Land use / Land cover in Kadalundi River Basin using Remote Sensing and GIS

Author(s) -  Yasodharan Suresh and Bindu K.B

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover features of Kadalundi river basin in Kerala. The river with its total length of 130 km. drains over an area of 1122 sq. km. and is characterised by dendritic type of drainage pattern. In order to understand the existing pattern of land use/land cover of any area, remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques provide consistent and accurate base line information than any of the conventional surveys. The existing land use pattern is derived from high resolution IRS-P6-LISS IV pan merged satellite imagery of 1: 50000 scale. The ERDAS and Arc GIS softwares were utilized to demarcate and analyse the land use/land cover features of Kadalundi river basin. The land use/land cover exhibits the physical and economical situation of any region, determines the living standard of people and natural resources found in a region.  The thematic mapping of the land use/land cover consists of built-up land, agriculture land, water bodies, forest and waste land were prepared by using the satellite imagery. The study highlights that the highlands are mostly covered by reserve forests with patches of tea estates in the higher reaches and coffee estates in the lower reaches. In the elevations between 75 m and 45 m above mean sea level, coconut, rubber and pepper are grown. Paddy and arecanut are grown in the valleys. The river estuary is found near the mouth of river and patches of settlement are traced closed to it. The present study gives a detailed account of the existing land use in Kadalundi river basin and it signifies its importance in proper land use planning for sustainable river basin management.

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Physico- Chemical Characteristics of inorganic constituent in Alluvium of Gomti basin and its health effects- A case study from Lucknow and Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh

Author(s) -  Premakumar K, Anandan. R , Nagarathinam S.R.

ABSTRACT

The alluvial soils of Gomti basin, parts of Lucknow and Unnao districts, Uttar Pradesh show presence of inorganic constituent viz, fluoride varying from 0.2mg/litre to 4.0mg/litre (ppm) in Older Alluvial soil (ultisol) and Newer Alluvial soil (Inceptisols). Besides fluoride, substantial higher concentrations of Nitrate <1.0mg/litre to 246 mg/litre is also observed in the samples. The study is leased on water samples collected from 35 locations in and around of Lucknow and Unnnao. Out of 35 ground water samples 17 samples were collected from urban areas, 16 ground water sample from rural areas and two samples from river water. The present study focused on quality of ground water in rural and urban areas. Geologically the area forms a parts of middle Ganga plain and is covered by alluvial deposits of quaternary age which is composed of older and newer alluvium.

Twenty four physico-chemical parameters namely pH, specific conductance, carbonate, bicarbonate, Chloride, fluoride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Lithium, Boron, Arsenic, Total hardness, Total dissolved solid and heavy metals (Iron, copper, Lead, Zinc, Nickel, Cobalt and Manganese) were analysed and quality deduced in comparison with quality standards of regulatory bodies, world health organization (WHO). Ground water occurs in the pore spaces of unconsolidated alluvial materials in the zone of saturation. The parameters of pH, specific conductance, Total dissolved solid (TDS) and Total hardness as CaCO3 in ground water sample varied from 7.1 to 8.9, 237 to 4500 micromhos/ cm, 220 to 2910mg/litre, 120 to 890gm/litre. The concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+ Na+,  K+, Li+, B,  CO32-,   HCO3- , Cl-,  , ,  varied from 7.0 to 165 mg/litre, 12 to 140mg/litre, 4.0 to 590 mg/litre, 1.0 to 335 mg/litre, < 0.2mg/lit, < 0.2 to 0.8mg/litre, Nil to 85mg/litre, 75to 675 mg/litre , 10 to 420 mg/litre, 0.2 to 4.0 mg/litre, < 1.0 to 246mg/litre, <2.0 to 1220 mg/litre, respectively. The range of heavy metal concentration are Fe=2.5 to 11.0 mg/litre, As=<0.01 to 0.08mg/litre, Cu= <0.1 to 0.1mg/litre, Pb= 0.1 to 0.7mg/litre, Zn = 0.2 to 5.0 mg/litre Ni=0.01 to 0.09mg/litre, Co=0.03to 0.09 mg/litre and Mn = <0.01 to 0.74 mg/ litre The assessment reveals that ground water have exceeded the desirable limits of WHO for drinking purpose in certain locations.

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Vertical Datum Unification in the Philippines from Analysis of Tide Stations

Author(s) -  Maria Cecilia Rubio-Paringit, Enrico C. Paringit

ABSTRACT

Being an archipelagic country, the Philippines has yet to adopt a national vertical datum. A datum is usually defined by averaging sea-level observations at one or more fundamental tide gauges. However, the mean value of the local datum at tide gauges does not coincide with geoid. This paper describes the results of determining the potential difference between datum zones by using a direct and indirect method as applied in the vertical datum unification of tidal stations in the Philippines. The results show that the potential differences computed from least square adjustment differ if data from gravity surveys and geoid modeling (e.g. NRMDP data) from those data acquired from GPS and levelling (NAMRIA). However, discrepancies were in the in the ellipsoidal heights used. These differences therefore had to be reconciled. Addressing this concern is important since the same data can be used to correct a future geoid model.

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Geostatistical evaluation of groundwater quality distribution of Tonk district, Rajasthan

Author(s) -  Pradeep Kumar Sharma, Ritu Vijay , Punia MP

ABSTRACT

Groundwater is an important source of drinking water in the semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India. Therefore, it becomes important to assess the groundwater quality. The groundwater chemical data of conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, fluoride, nitrate and chloride of 112 wells were taken from Ground Water Board. Since it is not feasible to collect the data from all the locations in the study area; so, geo-statistical analyst extension of ArcGIS was used to generate the spatial distribution maps of the water quality parameters using the data collected. This tool was used for exploratory data analysis, selection of the best semivariogram model, and cross-validation. The best fit semivariogram model was selected on the basis of root-mean-square standardized error (RMSS), mean square error (MSE), root mean square error (RMSE), and average standard error (ASE). The spatial distribution maps of all the given parameters are prepared by applying the ordinary kriging interpolation method.

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Diachronic analysis of the steppe land cover of the department of Sidi Bel-Abbes using the remote sensing (Western Algeria)

Author(s) -  Ayache .A, Hellal .B2, Ayad .N , Benhanifia  .K, Gacemi .M.A

ABSTRACT

The land cover modes of the steppe area of the Willaya of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Western Algeria) have witnessed different mutations during the period of 1987 to 2013; compromising the future of the pastoral activity. This dissection is based on a supervised classification of TSAVI values (Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) using images of remote sensing of medium spatial resolution of Landsat-TM 5 and 8 types. The satellites scenes were used undergoes atmospheric preprocessing. This step aims to create time series of images free of clouds and shadows. The determination of the land cover status and the validation of remote sensing maps by the confusion matrix show that the state of the halophilic/psammophitic steppes and the matorral are detected in 38.38% and 55.71% of cases, respectively. On the other hand, the chamaephytic steppes mark only -9.81% of regression, agricultural land-24.51% and -46.24% of dense vegetation are correctly mapped. The medium resolution remote sensing is therefore, in the light of these statistics, a relevant and effective management tool of the steppe area, which, in addition, allows enriching the area in view of an appropriate accommodation plan for the fight against desertification.

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Simulation and modeling of debris flows using satellite derived data: A case study from Kedarnath Area

Author(s) -  Shovan Lal Chattoraj, P.K. Champati ray

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive assessment of landslide hazard requires process based modeling using numerical simulation methods. The present study aims to focus on analysis of landslides/debris flow movements and simulate landslides that occurred in Kedarnath area in June 2013. Although not widely discussed, these landslides were the prime cause of river blockade that contributed significantly in glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) related disaster in and around Kedarnath. In the present study, the simulation was attempted by numerical modeling using Rapid Mass Movement Software (RAMMS). The algorithm is based on Voellmy frictional (dry and turbulent frictional coefficients, μ and ξ) parameters of debris flow with release area that can be identified on high resolution satellite images and derived DEM like Cartosat-1 DEM. Once the event is simulated model provides information on flow 1) Velocity, 2) Height, 3) Momentum, and 4) Pressure along the entrainment path.  The main emphasis was to understand on how closely numerical simulation predicted the attributes of the landslides/debris flow that contributed to the unprecedented disaster in Kedarnath. This study revealed that simulated flow height at base of the entrainment to vary from 1m to 6m and flow velocity varying from 3 to 7m/s. These vital output parameters can be used to provide insight of the event and extent of run out zone of future potential flows. Thus, this work bespeaks that numerical simulation modeling is capable of emulating natural events and outputs can be used for mitigation measures. 

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Mathematical analysis of Solani Watershed, North India

Author(s) -  Subhanil Guha

ABSTRACT

The present paper involves an attempt to study the measurement and mathematical analysis of Solani watershed in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, North India. Author has evaluated the morphometric parameters based on the Survey of India toposheets at 1:50,000 scale, SRTM-DEM and Landsat 8 data. For this detailed study, SRTM based DEM and GIS have been applied in evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of drainage morphometry. Stream length, stream ordering, sinuosity index etc. have been prepared using sophisticated GIS software, and DEM. Author has computed more than 49 morphometric parameter of all aspects. Based on the morphometric analysis it can be said that the erosional development of the area by the streams has progressed in the old stage and those lithological characteristics has had an influence in the development of drainage system. This study is very much beneficial for rainwater harvesting and watershed management.

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Estimation of vertical forest structure and above ground biomass using ICESat/GLAS data

Author(s) - Padma Alekhya V.V.L, Suraj Reddy R, Jha C S, Rajashekar G,  Prasada Rao P.V.V

ABSTRACT

Forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They form a very large and dynamic global carbon stock and also act as a sink. Deforestation and forest degradation results in the loss of the forest biomass/carbon amplifying the negative effects of climate change. Large uncertainty has been reported in estimating the rates of carbon emission in climate change scenarios due to the difficulty in spatially explicit estimation of the carbon stocks and dynamic changes. Several methods have been developed for estimating the carbon stock/above ground biomass (AGB) by using remote sensing data employing optical remote sensing and radar techniques. However, these applications have shown limited success majorly due to signal saturation at high biomass forests. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived vertical forest structure has demonstrated its potential in overcoming the signal saturation problem and in improving the accuracy of AGB estimation. Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) - Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) launched in January 2003 is the first space borne full waveform LiDAR sensor. The LiDAR waveform is used to estimate the forest canopy height using waveform derived parameters extracted using signal decomposition techniques. In the present study, we estimated average tree canopy heights and AGB from GLAS waveform parameters by using a multi-regression linear model across different forest types in Madhya Pradesh, India. The ICESat-GLAS derived heights were correlated with field measured tree canopy heights for 60 plots. Results have shown a significant correlation of R2= 74% for top canopy heights and R2=57% for stand biomass

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Hydrogeological mapping and estimation of potential evapotranspiration and recharge rate of Quaternary sand aquifers in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

Author(s) - Ibrahimu Chikira Mjemah, Kristine Walraevens

ABSTRACT

Dar-es-Salaam City is the largest urban centre in Tanzania, with a population of over 4 million. It gets water for domestic use from surface water (Ruvu and Kizinga rivers) and groundwater. The groundwater was used to supplement surface water supply and has by now become the major source of water supply in the city. However, despite the importance of groundwater in the city, limited researches on water quantity and quality have been conducted and generally the groundwater database is inadequate. The main objective of this research is to investigate the availability of groundwater by developing a hydrogeological map of the area and estimate the groundwater recharge rate of the Quaternary sand aquifer in the plain. The deposits in the study area cover two major periods, Quaternary and Neogene. They are made up of sedimentary rocks, which were proposed to be deposited in a fluviatile/deltaic environment with marine intercalations along the seaward margin. The Uluguru Mountains were probably the source of much of the materials deposited in the area. Nearly 150 m of Quaternary deposits consist of basically three geological layers: alluvial, coastal plain and coral reef limestone deposits. These deposits are mostly of Pleistocene to recent age and are found mainly moving from the coast towards the mainland within the river valleys. The Neogene deposits are of Miocene and Pliocene period. Two types of formations characterize these deposits: undifferentiated deposits (Mio-Pliocene clay-bound sands and gravels) and the fluviatile kaolinitic Pugu Sandstone (Lower Miocene). Hydrogeologically, the study area has two types of aquifers in the Quaternary deposits: an upper unconfined sand aquifer (5-50 m thick) and the lower semi-confined sand aquifer (the most productive zone 10-100 m thick). The groundwater recharge is estimated by using monthly precipitation data for 36 years, runoff and potential evapotranspiration. The average groundwater recharge rate in the area is 121.7 mm per year. This delivers substantial amounts of groundwater stored in the sand aquifers of the area.

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Assessment of river encroachment and land- use patterns in Dhaka city and its peripheral rivers using GIS techniques

Author(s) - Md. Ashraful Islam Chowdhury, Mohammed Amir Hossain Bhuyain and Mohammad Mahbub Kabir

ABSTRACT

After 70’s decade Dhaka city started as a densely populated mega city with high land scarcity for its ever growing population. Some opportunistic people take this advantage and make illegal constructions over the bank of river. These illegal constructions are increasing day by day and now turn into a sore called river encroachment. As a result, Dhaka city has been suffering from many socio-environmental problems including flooding, water logging and other related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the areas of illegal intrusion of navigable rivers and its canals over the period of 2001 to 2014, and unsupervised image classification was performed over the area of 200 meters by using the Arc GIS 10.1 and Google earth software, which is focused on different criteria. Rapid river encroachment has been observed in many places of Dhaka city and its peripheral river’s corridor. The order of encroached rivers was: Turag (Abdullahpur > Gabtoli), 120.7943 acres > Buriganga (Kamrangirchar > Bosila), 97.1697 acres > Sitallakhya (Katchpur > Narayangang), 23.8315 acres > Balu (Demra > Nandipara), 8.8424 acres within an area of 5.7581 miles, 7.4120 miles, 3.5679 miles and 4.2032 miles respectively. By ISO unsupervised image classification it was observed that the area was mostly encroached by human settlement and infrastructure. It was alarming that the infrastructure level in the study area of 2014 was several times higher when it is compared to the infrastructure level of 2001. The greatest percentages of infrastructures were built on the bank of Buriganga River in Bosila (56.10%) and the lowest percentages of infrastructures were built on the Balu River in Nandipara (1.77%). Not only these rivers, but also the Turag, and Sitallakhya River are also narrowing day by day. Due to the rising of illegal infrastructures and human settlement, the water bodies, barren lands, croplands and vegetation decreased significantly in the encroached areas.

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Land use land cover change and human – Environment interaction: the case of Lahaul valley

Author(s) - Simrit Kahlon

ABSTRACT

Earth being the home of man any amount of human change brought about by developmental or other processes of change leaves an imprint on the earth’s surface and this may best be studied through the process of land use and land cover change. Timely and accurate change detection of Earth’s surface features is extremely important for understanding relationships and interactions between human and natural phenomena in order to promote better decision making. The present research paper studies the change in land use and land cover in the Lahaul valley over the last almost four decades viz. 1976, 1989, 2000, 2011. The analysis was carried out with the intent of understanding the change in man – environment relationship as it is expressed over the physical landscape.  For the purpose of the present study a multi-pronged methodology was adopted. Land use and land cover patterns at different points in time viz. 1976, 1989, 2000 and 2011 were analysed and compared. Data for this purpose was procured in the form of satellite imageries from LANDSAT. The sensors that collected this data were Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+). The images were taken during the month of October (first week) when there is least possibility of disturbances and noise in the atmosphere. The snows have melted and the fresh snow is yet to fall. Base line information was obtained from the toposheets of the study area. The toposheets was at a scale of 1:250k. The resolution of the imageries was sixty meters for the 1976 imageries and for the rest was thirty meters. The study indicates large scale modification of the valley. Both bio-physical and socio-economic forces are to account for this. There is an expansion in both the area under agriculture and the area under settlements. While this is likely to result in a further change in the man – environment interaction, it is also not without cultural implications for the study area.

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Snow Avalanche as Disaster in Mountain Environment: A Case of Himachal Pradesh

Author(s) - Vishwa B.S.Chandel

ABSTRACT

Snow avalanche is a common phenomenon in high mountain landscapes like Himalayas where the sheer force of the down sliding snow uproot rocks, trees or other material and leave behind a devastating picture of death and misery. Such phenomena occur in areas where rapid accumulation of snow takes place and the most favourable location and situation is the high slopes just after a snow storm or heavy snowfall. This paper examines the spatial and temporal avalanche occurrence in Himachal Pradesh. The analysis shows that frequency and magnitude of snow avalanches in Himachal Pradesh are considerably less disastrous and have limited spatial extent; restricted to the Greater Himalayan region and the northern limits of middle Himalayas. Such events are confined to northern and eastern parts of the state where snowfall is perpetual. The locational distribution also shows that within the study area the most vulnerable areas include Chandra river valley from Koksar to Udaipur in Lahaul & Spiti district; Sangla valley, Karcham-Reckong Peo area and Tinku nullah in Poo area to Namgia in Kinnaur district; Pangi area of Chamba district and the higher reaches around Deo-Tibba of Kullu district. Likewise the impact of avalanches in terms of human casualty is confined to Lahaul & Spiti and Kinnaur districts.

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Riparian vegetation of Mini River in Vadodara, Gujarat

Author(s) - Dhara R. Shah, Sumesh N. Dudani, Amita O. Sankhwal and Deepa J. Gavali

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out with a principal aim of documenting the floristic richness in the riparian zone of Mini River and highlighting its current status. Transect based quadrat surveys were carried out in eight stations along the riverine stretch wherein 91 plant species belonging to 79 genera and 36 families were recorded. The herbaceous layer dominated the vegetation due to ravine area and species diversity of trees was low due to high anthropogenic activity. The sites like Station 1 and Station 5, which are reeling under severe anthropogenic pressures, were found to be harboring the least plant diversity as compared to the other sites. The occurrence of native species was less as compared to the exotic and invasive species such as Prosopis sp. and Lantana sp., which were present throughout the riverine system. This study provides the first baseline data on the vegetation character of the riparian zone of Mini River and calls for its conservation and restoration.

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Identification and delineation of threshold lower Yamuna River basin in
 Uttar Pradesh

Author(s) - Swati Jain, M. Ashraf

ABSTRACT

India is world’s seventh largest country considering its area and it has abundant water bodies/resources running from north to south and east to west. India’s rivers are mainly divided as Himalayan, peninsular, coastal, and inland-drainage basin rivers. Himalayan rivers are snow fed and maintain a high to medium rate of flow throughout the year. The massive annual mean rainfall amounts in the Himalayan catchments further add to their flow. During the monsoon months of June to September, the catchments are prone to flooding. The principal Himalayan Rivers are the Indus, the legendary Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Yamuna River is the principal tributary of the river Ganges which is divided into three sub basins namely Upper, Middle and Lower by the Central Water Commission of India. The Lower Yamuna river basin which majorly includes Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken and Tons rivers is the largest among them expanding in three states Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. River Yamuna majorly drains through Uttar Pradesh. According to Central Water Commission the area of entire Yamuna River basin is more than three lakh fifty thousand square kilometers and the Lower Yamuna River basin which is expanded over three states Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, accounts nearly 70% of the total Yamuna River basin. Clearly the area of Lower Yamuna basin is too large and the area coming discretely under the boundary of Uttar Pradesh has neither been delineated separately nor identified individually. With the help of Remote sensing and GIS technique the present study tries to identify and delineate the threshold of Lower Yamuna river basin’s extent in Uttar Pradesh.

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Evaluation of low cost, high sensitivity GNSS receivers based on the ISO RTK standards

Author(s) - Sioulis A, Tsakiri M, Stathas D

ABSTRACT

The emergence of single-frequency, navigation-type receivers capable to provide carrier phase data (the so-called high sensitivity carrier phase positioning) has been steadily growing over the recent years. The level of positioning accuracy obtained with navigation-type receivers has raised interest to various communities that use positioning information. Over the last years, various researchers have investigated the potential of high-sensitivity navigation-type receivers and antennas with analysis on their positioning performance in post-processing and RTK modes. Although the above efforts express valuable guidelines for the practical use of navigation-type receivers, they lack standardized test procedures. In addition, these procedures are not always easily tractable and the time and effort required to perform these are not insignificant. The main purpose of this study is evaluate the positioning performance of high-sensitivity carrier phase-based navigation receivers based on the official International Standards Organisation (ISO) specifications for real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS geodetic receivers. A number of standardised experiments are described using as rover receiver the u-blox NEO-7P XXL bundle package that contains the NEO-7P module and the low-cost antenna Tallysman TW2410. Based on the ISO 17123 part 8 GNSS RTK standards, the experiments include a number of simplified and full test procedures in different observation periods and under varying satellite geometry. The results demonstrate the suitability of the u-blox NEO-7P XXL bundle package with the NEO-7P module for different accuracy levels of RTK positioning applications.

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Estimating growing stock volume in a Bangladesh forest site using Landsat TM and field-measured data

Author(s) - Mohammad Redowan, Romana Akter, Mirajul Islam, Kazi Mohammad Masum, Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury

ABSTRACT

Estimation of forest Growing Stock (GS) is important in understanding the ecological dynamics and productive capacity of forests. Instead of the traditional cost-effective and time consuming ground based measurements, satellite images are being increasingly used in estimating many forest parameters including GS. This study estimates forest GS at Khadimnagar national park, Sylhet, Bangladesh using regression relationship of vegetation indices (VIs) of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image with field-measured GS. Among the VIs, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) was found to be the best predictor of forest GS with workable accuracy (r2= 0.77, P <0.000), while IRI (Infra-red Index) was the poorest estimator (r2= 0.377, P < 0.001). This approach could be operationally used for wider scale estimation GS in similar forest areas of Bangladesh.

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A Fuzzy approach to modelling land cover changes in north-eastern Nigeria

Author(s) - Abdullahi Ahmed Kuta Alexis J. Comber

ABSTRACT

This project has explored the use of GIS and Remote Sensing techniques to model and provide a better conceptualization of land cover changes using a Fuzzy approach in the north-eastern part of Nigeria (Kukawa town bordering Lake Chad), The maps shows the spatial extent of the land cover changes. The ability and the capacity of GIS to provide answers to questions on where the changes have occurred will help the environmentalist and the policymakers in solving environmental related problems and in the management of the existing natural resources since the locations of the changes were identified. Fuzzy supervised classification using normalized sigmoidal fuzzy membership function was performed on the Landsat images of three dates and the classified maps inputted into GIS and the land cover changes modelled. The results shows that the dry soil was more intensive in 1992, whilst vegetation and moist soil were more intensive in 1984 and the water body was more intensive in 2000. The dry soil covers an area of 39.02% (1984), 48.27% (1992) and 39.98% (2000), whilst the moist soil occupied 46.37% (1984), 35.1% (1992) and 45.52% (2000), Vegetation on the other hand showed a continuous decrease from 19.23% (1984), 15.37% (1992) to 14.47% (2000) whilst water body continues to increase from 3.77% (1984), 6.67% (1992) to 7.27% (2000),

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