INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMATICS AND GEOSCIENCES
VOLUME 6, NO 3- 2016 - February 2016
Real time drought monitoring using Remote Sensing approaches A Case Study :Western desert of Kharga and Dakhla Regions
Author(s) - Abdullahi Ahmed Kuta Alexis J. Comber
A new drought index was developed using Soil moisture(SM) and Land Surface temperature (LST) reflectance data, which deduced from Landsat images, called ( LST/SM). This new index was examined beside other effective existing drought index named :Perpendicular Drought Index( PDI), which consider as useful indicator for monitoring drought condition . These indices were applied on the middle of western desert of Egypt ( Kharga and Dakhla regions ) as study areas. Red ,blue, and near- infrared wavelengths of landsat 8 (2014) and TM 5(2003) images were preprocessed : First geo-registed then converted to TOA Reflectance for SM , PDI indices determination Thermal infrared bands were processed using different algorithms to deduce LST data . 800 random points were well distributed on each resulted index raster image to analyze the drought condition. The results demonstrated that for Kharga region : the mean value for LST/SM index was slightly increased from 16.770 in 2003 to 16.807 in 2014, and for PDI index ,the mean value increase from 0.583 in 2003, to 0.6171 in 2014.For Dakhla region :mean value of LST/SM index increase from 17.589 in 2003 to 20.820 in 2014 , while for PDI index , the mean value increase from 0.5676 in 2003 to 0.6021 in 2014. Standard deviation (SD ) for LST/SM index were increased from 2.5933 in 2003 to 2.9775 in 2014 for Kharga region , and SD increase from 2.9996 in 2003 to 3.0756 in 2014 for Dakhla region . Analyzing the drought indices proof significant correlation between LST/SM , PDI(r =.457). The results proof slightly increasing in drought condition in the two study areas and this was agree with other previous field study. Finally These indices LST/SM and PDI have the potential to provide a effective, simple and real time monitoring method in the remote estimation of drought phenomena.
GIS-based mapping of flood vulnerability and risk in the Bénin Niger River valley
Author(s) - Idelbert Dagbégnon Behanzin, Michael Thiel, Joerg Szarzynski,Michel Boko
Over recent decades, flood disaster is occurring frequently in West Africa. Located in the heart of West Africa, the Niger River Basin has not been spared of the flood hazard that are threating human security in the region. The people living in the area are subjected to flood mortalities, injuries, massive destruction of crops, fisheries and livestock assets, collapsed of roads, bridges, education and health facilities followed by outbreak of diseases and environmental degradation. In doing so, flood prevent people from escaping poverty and set back development gains. Despite the threat, very scant research documented flood risk. Or without flood risk analysis, opportunities to reduce vulnerability could be missed and impact of development work may be undermined. In respect with that, this study addresses flood vulnerability and risk in the Bénin Niger River Valley including the two municipalities Karimama and Malanville. A GIS-based mapping and theory-driven indicator approach were applied. The assessment revealed that almost ninety per cent of the district of the area are located in flood hazard footprint and are consequently exposed. Even if the tow municipalities of the area are exposed to flood hazard, they are not all at to the same degree of risk due to their different degrees of vulnerability. The vulnerability indicators chosen in the framework of this study show that the municipality of Karimama is more vulnerable than the municipality of Malanville. This is due to poverty and the weaker pre-existing physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerability conditions of the municipality of Karimama. The risk assessment revealed that seventy per cent of the districts of the area are at high risk. In view of potential climate extremes events, we assert that there is an urgent need to have high resolution data to deepen research especially about the flood risk in the Niger River basin.
Geological, Geomorphological and Lineament mapping through Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, in parts of Madurai, Ramanathapuram and Tiruchirappalli districts of Tamil Nadu
Author(s) - Sivakumar V
Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (RS and GIS) technology play a major role in thematic map generation and integrated analysis for mapping, managing and monitoring the natural resources. RS and GIS technology have opened a new era in the field of applied geology. A remote sensing observation from space provides a synoptic view of terrain, thus provide ability in detecting lithology, land formand lineaments on the imagery. Remotely sensed (satellite) digital data have a benefit in that the image data can be enhanced/manipulated for improving image interpretability with better accuracy. Satellite data facilitate the preparation of geological, lineament and geomorphological maps, particularly at a regional and small scale according to the resolution of the images. GIS has capability to visualize, enhance, manipulate,generate, store, integrate and analyse the thematic data. This study aims to map the lithology, geomorphology and lineaments in parts of Madurai, Ramanathapuram and Tiruchirappalli districts of Tamil Nadu based on visual image interpretation techniques. These maps would be useful for further analysis for natural resource planning, management and decision making.
Spatio-temporal landuse/landcover (LULC) change analysis of Kolong River basin, Assam, India using Geospatial technologies
Author(s) - Minakshi Bora, Dulal C Goswami
The Kolong River of Nagaon district in Assam, which once used to be a prize possession for the people of the state in general and for the people of Nagaon in particular, is presently gasping on its death-bed because of a ruthless and untenable act perpetrated on it in the name of engineering solution to the increasing flood hazard attributed to it in the aftermath of the great Assam earthquake of 1950. In the backdrop of the above scenario, it is high time we undertake a holistic river restoration programme for the Kolong River based on state-of-the art knowledge and scientific know-how currently available on the subject. Application of remote sensing and GIS, techniques will serve as a basic set of mapping tools for creation of a baseline overview of the river basin. Attempt has been made in this study to map out the status of land use/land cover of Kolong basin with a view to detect changes that had occurred in their status particularly in the built-up area and agricultural land. The landuse/ landcover of the study area have been categorized into six broad classes based on the variation observed in the area. The results showed a significant negative change in total agricultural land with a total decrease from 2216.96 Km2 to 1449.39 Km2 during the year 1967-68 to 2014; while an overall positive change was observed in case of built-up area which has increased from 1069.05 Km2 to 1838.84 Km2 during the study period. Single layer overlay analysis was also performed in order to verify the overall change under each landuse/landcover class. Significant reduction (704.97Km2) in agricultural land to built-up area was verified by the conversion matrix.
Hypsometric analysis of the Tuirini Drainage basin: A Geographic Information System approach
Author(s) - Fuzal Ahmed and K. Srinivasa Rao
Hypsometric analysis deals with measurement of the interrelationships between basin area and altitude of basin which has been used to understand the influence of climatic, geologic and tectonic factors on topographic changes. GIS provides advanced tools to obtain hypsometric information and helps to estimate the associated parameters of landforms. The study of hypsometry has been performed to differentiate between erosional landforms at different stages during their evolution. The Tuirini basin is characterized by steep to very steep slopes whereas the altitude varies from 1905 m to 78 m above msl. The present study was carried out using ArcGIS - 10.2 tools. The entire study area was sub-divided into 22 sub-basins for hypsometric analysis and there area ranges from 4.75 to 65.64 sq.km. The hypsometric curve of the whole Tuirini basin reflects the mature geomorphic terrain whereas hypsometric integral indicates that the drainage basin has already eroded 58 per cent of land masses. The overall hypsometric results suggest that the sub-basins are in the mature stages of geologic development with moderately eroded landscapes and the entire basin is progressively approaching towards the monadnock phase of erosion.
Estimation of fishery sector as a Coastal Resource Zone to explore the associate problems and opportunity at Balasore Coastal District, Odisha, India
Author(s) - Nilay Kanti Barman, Goutam Bera, Kamila Amrit
Coastal zone is full of different resource like marine fish, mangrove forest, sand, fuel wood, etc. A considerable part of national and state income is achieved from the fishing sector. So fishing is getting popular among the unemployed youths. The profit from the fishing sectors is higher than the agriculture that’s why fishing, is now getting popular among all the coastal dwellers. For this consequence the export of fish has increased in the same time country is earning huge foreign currency. In order to optimally utilize and reap the benefits without hampering the balance, it is necessary to adopt integrated coastal management strategies based on solid scientific foundation that allow for multiple uses of the resources without causing serious damage to the environment. The present endeavor deals with the fishing sector and its problems and opportunity to ensure the sustainable coastal zone management through field observation as well as secondary data analysis and satellite image analysis.
“Hows” of quality for remote sensing data user- A house of quality approach
Author(s) - Yogdeep Desai, Kartikeyan B, Nilam Panchal
House of Quality (HOQ) is the first phase of Quality Function Deployment (QFD)- A Total Quality Management (TQM) technique of translating customer expectations-Voice of Customer (VOC)- into product specifications-Voice of Technician (VOT). The QFD has been successfully used by manufacturing sector in new product development. This paper demonstrates how the requirement of user of scientific product like Remote Sensing Data Product (RSDP) can be translated to technical specification through HOQ, the most crucial phase of QFD. The paper lists out the organs of HOQ, their significance and also lists out the quality parameters of RSDP. The paper explains the challenges of defining quality of RSDP as perceived by the RSDP user owing to its 4-dimensional dependency- its intended use, satellite, sensor and data product generation. However, first-ever attempt to use HOQ to understand “Hows” of Quality for RSDP users concludes with optimism about the usability of this technique which will help in customizing the product to suit user requirement and increase its utilization in decision-making process related to management of natural resources. Because the fulfilling of user requirement extend beyond the scope of just the data product generation process, a broader study encompassing other dimensions need to be undertaken.
GIS based suitability analysis for coffee farming in Kenya
Author(s) - Frankline Rono, Charles C. Mundia
Coffee production in Kenya has been declining, worsening the socio-economic wellbeing of the local farmers. This study was undertaken to develop a method and design a spatial model to help in identifying sites in Elgeyo-Marakwet County in Kenya that are suitable for sustainable production of coffee. The methodology used for this study integrates GIS, remote sensing and Multi Criteria Modelling to analyze topography, soil, land cover, and climate factors by matching them with the requirements for the growth of coffee. The model used was validated based on the output results. The study results indicate that the places suitable for Arabica and Robusta coffee production cover an area of 1793.6 Km2 (58.3%) and 539.3 Km2 (17.5%) respectively. The results for Arabica suitability classes show that highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), and not suitable (N) cover an area of 69.6 Km2 (1.2%), 1409.5 Km2 (46.6%), 314.6 Km2 (10.4%), 1231.0 Km2 and (40.7%) respectively. The results for Robusta coffee analysis indicate the classes highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), and not suitable (N) extend to an area of 5.78 Km2 (0.2%), 507.03 Km2 (16.8%), 16.48 Km2 (0.5%), and 2495.35 Km2 (82.5%) respectively. The findings for the research imply that, for sustainable coffee economic gains in the study area, farmers need to consider growing more of Arabica coffee and less of the Robusta type. These results could be used by farmers, agricultural extension officers and the county government to devise new strategies on practical sustainable coffee farming in Kenya. The findings could be replicated in the rest of the country to boost coffee production as well as production of other crops.